What did the dragonflies and other insects that lived millions of years ago look like? Their shapes can now be accurately recreated thanks to the impressions preserved in the lithographic limestone.
Ichthyosaurs, known otherwise as fish lizards, reigned supreme in the waters of the oceans for 155 million years. No other tetrapod (with the exception of cetaceans) staged a return to the aquatic environment in such style. However, to this day we do not know where ichthyosaurs came from and why they became extinct so long before the dinosaurs...
Sandstone with mudstone intercalations and marl with marly limestone deposited first in shallow then in a deeper basin in the Triassic. A carbonate complex, build mainly of limestone and partly of dolomite developed in the Middle Triassic.
At the end of the Triassic and beginning of the Jurassic carbonate formations were being destroyed and removed from the land. The Middle Jurassic sea entered into the vicinity of Kraków in the Upper Bathonian and lasted till the Kimmeridgian.
During the Olympic Games in Sochi the organisers announced that participants who won a gold medal on 15 February would receive a special meteorite medal containing a piece of the Chelyabinsk space rock. The rock, which had fallen a year before in especially dramatic circumstances, injured about 1,600 people and caused damage to several thousand buildings.
Following the advice of Professor Andrzej Manecki, an eminent cosmologist and expert on meteorites, we present a short briefing addressed to those lucky ones who will witness the fall of cosmic material.
Every year approximately one million tons of cosmic material enter the Earth’s atmosphere. Not only in the form of meteorites, which in fact constitute an insignificant percentage of falls, but primarily in the form of cosmic dust. Traces were found in Małopolska and among other places it has been detected in the Wieliczka Salt Mine.
The Wieliczka salt deposit is a small part of the Miocene marine sediments that fill the Carpathian depression and has a close link with the geological structure of this region. It was created about 13.6 million years ago, as a result of sedimentation in the Miocene Sea, formed subsequently by tectonic movements. The lithostratigraphic profile of the deposit and its surroundings includes the Mesozoic (Jura and Cretaceous) and Cenozoic (Neogen and Quaternary) periods.
For centuries, precious stones have been desired not only because of their beauty. It was believed that, if properly selected, they could cure a variety of ailments and diseases. Some of them became direct components of healing potions. Powdered pearls, which were believed to be created from God’s tears...
Salt exploitation history is connected in Poland, with the Miocen marine deposits filling the Pre-Carpathian basin. The salt series thickness varies from 250 m in Wieliczka up to 1500 m close to Wojnicz. It is built of five cyclothems, that is sedimentation cycles, beginning from aggregated and argillaceous rocks (sandstones, mudstones, claystone), argillo-calcerous and anhydrite claystone to anhydrites and halites.