Treasure consists of objects found that had been collected and deliberately hidden (deposited), usually in the ground, for some specific reason. Deposits of treasure from the Bronze and early Iron Age are especially numerous; these usually included ornaments, tools, weapons and sometimes bronze vessels.
This mug was part of the tomb gifts of the ‘princess’ from Ryzhanovka. It rested in a bronze situla, which probably contributed to the fact that it was in perfect condition. The entire vessel is carved out of one piece of metal. The ornament consists of vertical forged stripes, centred around...
Crinoids are one of the classes of animals that make up the phylum Echinodermata, which includes about 700 species of marine invertebrates, mainly found in deep waters. Their body resembles a goblet; they have five or more feathery arms, edged with feathery processes which contain their reproductive organs. There are also numerous tube feet placed on them, which perform a sensory function. The arms of the crinoids are equipped with so-called gutters, with tiny, hairy cell processes – the cilia – transporting food to the mouth. Their very characteristic internal skeleton makes thousands of extinct species extremely important Palaeozoic index fossils.
In ancient Greece, if you were harmed by someone whom you were unable to bring into court (e.g. a citizen of another city), you could seek compensation, with the consent of your polis, by seizing the property of the apprehended perpetrator or even the property of any other (innocent!) citizen of the same city from where the criminal came. This procedure was referred to as syle. Special places where individuals threatened with syle were offered sanctuary were known as asylia, which is the origin of today’s term “asylum”.
This flinted javelin arrowhead, with a clearly separated cap, was made with two-sided retouching. The object dates back to the early Bronze Age (the turn of the 3rd and 2nd millennium BC). It is 11.6 cm long, with a 5 cm width at its widest point, and is only 0.6–0.7 cm thick. It was made of...
The terra sigillata vessel in the form of a bowl on a foot comes from the cremation tomb accidentally discovered in Lisów (Opatów district). The vessel was imported from a province of the Roman Empire. The form of the vessel is typical of the pottery workshop in Rheinzabern (south-western Germany), the largest centre producing vessels of this type in the northern provinces of the Roman Empire (Germania Superior), operating in 190–220. The vessel was made of clay, sealed in the matrix with a negative decoration, and subsequently baked in a furnace in the pottery workshop of Primitivus I.
This sculpture of a male head, from the early Stone Age, was found during excavations in Pleszów, in the area of Nowa Huta. Extremely realistic, it is the logotype of the branch of the Archaeological Museum in Nowa Huta. An unknown artist presented the face with many details: the skull is...
This treasure was found during rescue investigations in the basements of the backyard annex at 13 Kanonicza Street in Kraków in 1979. The deposit fell under the core of the early medieval bank of Okol. It was hidden in a pit measuring 108 x 210 cm, at a depth of about 100 cm, under walls partially covered with oak and fir wood...
The ushabti figures — artistically perfect and finely made — were purchased from the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities in Cairo by soldiers of the Polish Independent Carpathian Rifle Brigade during WW II and subsequently granted to the Archaeological Museum. The pillar at the back of the figure reaches the lower edge of a tripartite wig, finely fashioned in regular wisps exposing the ears.
The iron sword from the Mały Rynek [Small Market] Square in Kraków was discovered during the renovation of the square’s surface in 2007. So far, it is the only sword found in the archaeological research in the area of Kraków.
A fragment of a clay leg preserved in the form of a bare, right foot. Visible toes marked with short cuts. On the inner side, under the heel, below engraved lines, six short, diagonal lines are visible. The foot is slightly bent inwards; it is narrower at the heel and it widens towards curving arranged fingers.
The little amphora comes from excavation research conducted in Witów in the post-war period in site no. 1. From 1961 to 1963, the research was coordinated by Józef Marciniak, PhD, and in the 1970s by Jacek Rydzewski, PhD. During the works, objects showing evidence of a human presence in Witów as early as the Neolithic era were found.
On one of the seven hills of Rome – the Esquiline Hill – caves full of ancient paintings were excavated around 1480 under the foundations of medieval buildings. Their walls were decorated with fantastic, light and symmetrical structures created of figural, animal and floral motifs. La grotte, or caves, were in fact ruins of the villa of the Emperor Nero. It was called Domus Aurea because of the extraordinarily rich decoration of the walls and the inner part of the dome, which were covered with gold and paintings. They were created between AD 54 and 68 and related to the turn of the Third Style and Fourth Style of Pompeian painting.
The glass bead was accidently discovered during the surface research conducted in 1997 in the town of Dziewięcioły (District of Miechów, the Małopolska Province). It was made of yellow opaque glass...
The vessel is part of the rich collection of monuments from Bilcze Złote, from the Werteba Cave. The objects come from excavations, conducted with breaks from 1876 to 1907, by Adam Honory Kirkor, Gotfryd Ossowski, and Włodzimierz Dematrykiewicz. The collections of Prince Leon and Teresa Sapieh were handed over by agreement in 1904 to the Museum of Skills Academy in Kraków.
The sculpture comes from the excavations conducted by Hermann Junker in 1913 in the eastern sector of the Great Western Necropolis, west of the Pyramid of Cheops. The sculpture depicts the figures according to a specific canon: the man in a walking posture and the woman standing with feet held together.
The find comes from the excavations conducted in the Maszycka Cave by Gotfryd Ossowski in 1883 and is related with reindeer hunters (the so-called Magdalenian culture). The object was made from reindeer antlers. It is almost 30 cm long. It was found among the remains of several people (men, women and children).
A treasure of four gold Roman coins from the 5th century AD was found in Witów. It contains three solidi of Emperor Theodosius II (402–450) and one solidus of Emperor Valentinian II (424–455). The first group of coins presents a bust in an armour on the obverse. The name of the emperor is inscribed on the rim — DN THEODOSI-VS P.F. AVG.
It was discovered in August 1961 in the settlement of Pleszów. A part of the deposit was put in a clay pot with a volume of about 2 litres. The remaining part was scattered across a fairly large space. The treasure contains silver objects: coins and their fragments — 608 items, 129 fragments of ornaments, 341 cast pieces of silver and 8 pieces of lead. The treasure was hidden after 1037 and it weighs 2 532 g.
With over two thousand years mummy comes from the excavations carried out in 1907 in el-Gamhud by the first Polish Egyptologist, Tadeusz Smoleński. The goddess Isis – Aset-iri-khet-es – lies in a sarcophagus with an impressive lid. Through research conducted in 1996 it found that it was a young woman who died approx. two thousand 300 years ago as a result of blood loss caused by arterial puncture fractured leg. Specialists able to determine, among others, the genetic code of the deceased and her blood type. It is the largest in terms of the size of the object from the collection of Egyptology in Poland and is best examined by specialists.