A pitchfork, one of the basic tools used by peasants at work, for centuries was also used as a means of defence — it was used for fighting in the absence of regular weapons. Peasants, drafted into the army since the Middle Ages, had to procure their weapons themselves. Having no armour or...
Historians define the privilege as a document issued by the monarch to a particular group, state or — like in the case of Gródek and Kąclowa — a concrete place. It was enforced only on a particular land which was mentioned in the document of the privilege.
Stępa vessels, also called groats mortars, were commonly used in many houses as early as in the interwar period. Grains of crops were shelled and crushed by them in order to obtain the groats, including among others millet groans, or peeled barley. Groats mortars were also used to crack, that is grind, grains, more rarely to break grains into meal, and even to press oil from flaxseed.
One of the rooms in a barn is traditionally called a mow (sąsiek). In this case, the name refers to a wooden chest, usually situated in a hall or in a chamber behind a hall, which was designed for keeping grains for sowing. A chest belonging to the collection of the Museum in Kęty is typical of southern Poland. Inside the chest are two chambers for two types of grain.
One exhibit which usually arouses substantial interest among visitors to the Museum in Kęty is the 19th-century wooden lister, which can also be called a plough or a small plough. A lister differed from a plough in the fact that it did not turn over a ridge during ploughing and because...
Presented exhibit does not resemble winter boots. It was weaved from straw and intricately bound with string. Shape presented berlocy associated rather with straw baskets that can be purchased at the folk fairs. How could they go?
Wooden forks, a popular simple agricultural tool, were commonly used until the first half of the twentieth century, when they were replaced by ever-cheaper iron forks. The type of fork used for spreading dung, displayed in the collections of the Museum in Kęty, could be found in southern Poland, as well as in the area of the present-day Czech Republic and Slovakia.
In peasant farmhouses butter was usually made by whipping cream in wooden stave churns. However, this must have been an exhausting activity: hands fainted and the back numbed. Nonetheless, whoever has ever tried real cottage butter shall never regret the effort.
This painting represents the Zalipie culture which is closely connected with the Dąbrowa district. The fact that it was painted by Felicja Curyłowa, one of the most talented artists from Zalipie, makes this exhibit even more valuable. Enjoying great authority and endowed with organisational skills, being conscious of the value of local decorative traditions, Curyłowa made Powiśle famous not only in Poland but also outside the borders of the country.
This small bike made by a peasant boy for his younger brother has no pedals or brakes – it is suitable only for downhill riding... We should pay attention to its construction – an indication of creativity and imagination. A two-wheeled bike with a frame of two wooden slats and handlebars made from a debarked stick.
Easter Monday Dziad (dziad śmiguśny, dziad śmigustny or słomiak), a costume for a boy or a young man walking on Easter Monday from home to home as part of the śmigus dyngus tradition in Małopolska, in villages around Limanowa. The wooden frame, a dummy imitating a standing person.
A few kinds of cropped jackets were used around Kraków, though the most popular and liked ones were those worn by Kraków women in the Young Poland time. Cropped jackets emerged as a popular piece of women's attire in the 1960s and 1970s, though their history dates back to as far as the 19th century.
The lockable presented chest—decorated with zigzag and oblique grid motifs—was used for grain storage. It was carved in an interesting way. The craftsman who made it either knew—or had come into contact with—the achievements of Roman culture.
The presented apron was worn with festive attire and put on over a colourful skirt by both ladies and married women in the Podgórze region. It is sewn by hand from factory fabric, white linen, and embroidered by hand.
The presented corset comes from the village of Rozdziele. Corsets (lajbyky) were worn by Lemko women – brides and young married women. They were worn over blouses.
Jan Wiktor (1890–1967) was a novelist and journalist, the eulogist of the landscape and history of the Sącz land. His relationship with the Pieniny Mountains began in 1913 when he arrived in Szczawnica for medical treatment. He actively participated in the life of the resort and for some time worked in the Resort Committee.
Tadeusz Seweryn (1894–1975) — Director of the Ethnographic Museum in Kraków — describes this bike in the scientific catalogue sheet as follows: ”A bike made of wood by a cattleman, Franciszek Gucwa. The full wheels (spokeless) are connected with wooden ploughs. The front one has handlebars, heavily fitted with iron at the place where it is connected to the axis of the bike.
A man's kaftan without a collar and sleeves, sewn by hand and made of deep dark blue factory cloth. On the back, below the waist, there are three slits dividing the kaftan's bottom into four laps, the so-called gills. The lining and trimming are made of red cloth. On the front, the pockets are covered with pentagonal lapels.
An outfit was one of the ways of proving your wealth in one village of the Lendians (Lachowie). In winter, on holidays, Sundays, and fair days, the wealthiest farmers wore Hungarian sheepskin coats made from white tanned leather. Coats were long, with a fold at the waist, and a large semi-circular collar made from black lambskin falling down the back, with which they wrapped their heads during blizzards.
The theme of a Pensive Christ is one of the most popular ones in folk art. The figure from the Pieniny Mountains Museum collection comes from the village of Sromowce Niżne, the population of which belongs to an ethnographic group of Pieniny highlanders. It was made in 1937 by Michał Plewa, a folk artist.