Bogdan Treter (1886–1945) — an architect and regional heritage conservator for the Kraków Province — designed fabrics for the Polish Kilim Making Industry Association (“Kilim”), shown in 1929 at the National Show in Poznań. His designs were executed by Wanda Grottowa's Artistic Kilim Studio in Kraków.
Two curved and crossed cobalt swords are the hallmark of the porcelain factory in Meissen and have marked its products for over three hundred years. The Meissen Royal Factory first started the production of European porcelain. Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, in collaboration with Johann Friedrich Böttger, discovered the closely guarded secret of its production in 1708. Under Böttger’s supervision, pursuant to the Royal Decree, in 1710, Kursächsische Manufaktur started to function in the castle of Albrechtsburg in Meissen.
In the Korzec collection in Tarnów, which numbers 450 inventory items, a small vase of the kantharos type deserves special attention. Vases of this type served as decorations and were produced on the occasion of anniversaries or other events. The excellent quality of the product and the elegance of its form and decorations prove the high level of manufacturing quality in the 1st two decades of the 19th century. In Polish museum collections, a similar small vase can be found in the collection of the National Museum in Warsaw.
During the mid-18th century it was popular to set the table on the occasion of the most important ceremonies with porcelain statuettes forming rich iconographic stories. Among the display of the typical national figures, undoubtedly seen as quite exotic in the eyes of Western Europe, one could be find considerable numbers of Poles, whose rich traditional noble attire and bent sabres with eastern ornamentation must have been fascinating to the Saxon court.
During the mid-18th century it was popular to set the table on the occasion of the most important ceremonies with porcelain statuettes forming rich iconographic stories. Along the entire length of the table, next to the silverware and the china, sat an arrangement of many statuettes in the form of garden paths, streets or castle arcades, placed on a mirror sheet or coloured sand.
Chinese and Japanese porcelain was once an extremely valuable and desirable product in Europe, which was already being imported in the Middle Ages. It was called “white gold”, because it commanded value comparable to this precious metal and was often used as its substitute (e.g. as a gift). At that time, porcelain was viewed as a synonym of luxury and its possession testified to the splendour of the house; only the wealthiest people — mainly royalty — could afford it. In the modern era — in connection with the fashion for Orientalism — porcelain gained such great popularity, that a great effort was made to discover how it was manufactured: one of the most guarded secrets of the East.
On the initiative of Prince Józef Klemens Czartoryski, in 1784, a faience factory commenced operation in his Volhynian estates, in the suburbs of the town of Korets, in Józefina. It was the second farfurnia (in old Polish: factory of faience), after the one founded by King Stanisław August in Belweder near Warsaw on the territory of former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Czartoryski was well aware that the possession of the necessary resources within his own estates was the most lucrative way of organizing factories. For this reason, he sent samples of argil from the area of Korets to be analysed by experts in the famous. The outcome turned out to be to his advantage. The discovered deposits of kaolin, and other materials essential for production (kaolin was brought from Dąbrowica near Korets, flint — from Krzemieniec, and chalk — from Jampol), paved the way for business development.
The sashes worn with the kontusz by the nobility of the Republic of Poland are of Eastern origin. In Poland they became popular by the agency of Armenians, who first brought them from Persia and Turkey, and later initiated their production in the workshops set up in Poland. The best-known manufacturing factory was located in Słuck.
The presented object is a wide skirt of navy-blue cretonne covered with a white print of plant pattern (contour clover leaves), referring to the so-called 19th century, factory-made tłoczeliny. It has a traditional cut.