Saint Barbara, as the patron of good death, was worshipped above all by those who were most vulnerable to sudden and unexpected death: miners, steel workers, sailors, fishermen, soldiers, stone-cutters, and prisoners. Today, Saint Barbara is primarily considered to be the most important patron of miners. However, in Wieliczka, the miners used to pray primarily to St. Kinga, St. Anthony, and St. Clement.
The turn of the 19th and 20th centuries was a period of increased travel around the world for various purposes: exploration, research, and pure tourism. Various objects were brought back from these journeys, among which were both works of art of a specific culture, nation, or social group, as well as various utilitarian objects and souvenirs.
Mummy was carefully wrapped in resinated bandage, the crossing bands created geometrical pattern. In the upper part it is formed to resemble the head of a falcon with all the essential details being marked on it. X-ray made of the mummy have revealed no mummified remains under the bandages; inside are the bones of an animal. The falcon's skeleton being mixed with, as paleontologist have discovered, the bones of a frog and lizard, presumably the bird's last meal.
Carved in a single block of marble from Carrara and covered with a slightly smaller flat block with the figure of the queen lying with head directed towards the east. It is situated in the first arcade from the west in the southern wing of the ambulatory. An austere block tomb is supported by a base decorated with highly stylised lilies, a frize of square panels filled with heraldic eagles in the top part. The longer side (southern) is divided into seven panels, with the outer ones overlapping narrower sides.
The history of medieval reliquaries begins with the 62nd decree of the Fourth Council of the Lateran in 1215 where the issue of enshrining holy relics was raised. They were supposed to be enshrined and presented only in protective reliquaries. It was the reason why reliquaries took various forms throughout the centuries...
This object was found in Bilcze Złote (now the Tarnopol region, Ukraine), in the Werteb cave in 1898, by Włodzimierz Demetrykiewicz. The badge is a part of the rich collection of Leon XX and Teresa Sapieh, which was handed over by agreement in 1904 to the Museum of Skills Academy in Kraków.
A wall sculpture hollowed out from behind. It depicts Mother of God in a gentle contrapposto, bent in the shape of a reversed “S”, wearing a gilded dress of a warm red tone as well as a gilded coat on a silver lining with an olive glaze. Mary has a veil and a crown on her head. In her right hand, Madonna is holding Infant Jesus in a gilded dress.
Set on a profiled base with bar holes is a picture painted on both sides of a board, presented in a simple frame, flanked with a wavy ribbon on the sides and topped with a decoratively cut peak with a cross. The structure of the procession float is painted with oil based cobalt paint.
Mummy was carefully wrapped in resinated bandage, the crossing bands created a geometrical pattern. The upper part was formed to resemble the head of a cat with all details being marked on it. X-ray made of the mummy have revealed no mummified remains under the bandages; inside are bones of an animal. In order to provide stiffness the cat's skeleton was stiffed by a stick. Animals were mummified in Egypt for different reasons. A haunch from an ox or some other animal, dipped in salt and wrapped in bandages, was put in a wooden coffin of appropriate shape to serve as food for the deceased in the Netherworld. Mummified pets – monkeys, dogs, even gazelles and ducks – were placed inside the funerary chamber, sometimes inside the coffin with their dead owner.
The sculpture is full-length and depicts Madonna in a long, floral-decorated dress in brown-red and navy-blue colours and with a gilded coat tied over her chest. Mary, tilted to the left, with her right leg bent in her knee, is holding a gold-plated sceptre in her right hand, while her left hand is holding the child with a book in its hands.
A reliquary in the form of a hand (forearm) placed on a polygonal base in a vertical position. The middle part of the reliquary is red (the sleeve of a robe) with visible relics put in a small rectangular panel obscured by a glass pane.
Feretron is a special type of paintings or sculptures with saints' that were used not only during the procession in church celebrations, but also as portable altars during pilgrimages.
The priest of every religion — as a person worthy of leading worship practices and mediating in the contact between people and God (gods) — was an ennobled figure in society. Therefore, priests — as a social class — were distinguished from the common folk by special attire, appropriate to their dignity and the activities represented by them. The current form of the elements of the liturgical vestments for the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church, traces its origin back to the beginnings of Christianity. The followers of Christ, due to the dangers of persecution and the poverty of the early church, did not use any official attire accompanying the practice of worship. During prayer, the men had their heads uncovered and the women were veiled. Initially, people celebrating the liturgy did not use special vestments. They used the clothes which were worn by the Romans at that time.
The evolution of iconography, from the instilling of an idea, its crystallisation in worship, to its materialisation in art is a long and complicated process. The example of the Protection of the Mother of God shows how creativity could develop a theme based on one idea; the idea in which the East and the West found a common source, and through the interpretation of which their paths diverged with time.
The monument to Mickiewicz which was unveiled in Kraków in 1889 was not the only honour given to the poet after his death. Over the 34 years that passed since the 26th of November 1855 (the date of his death), the poet’s body and his person, reproduced in depictions and photographs, was idealised. With time, it became less and less similar to the original. It entered the sphere of myth and interpretation.