The earliest source of confirmation regarding use of oil lamps in the Wieliczka Mine dates back to the beginning of the 16th century, but there are no exact data on the shape and material from which they were made. Probably, two types of oil lamps were used: clay – to be held in the hand or adapted to be placed on a flat surface; and metal – with a hook for carrying and hanging, connected with a container for tallow. The shapes of both types are similar – pear-shaped and vertical.
The clasp was discovered by Lidia Dobrzańska, primary school student, residing in Dabrowa Tarnowska summer of 1955 years. The girl, a dip in the Dunajec in Żabno noticed a nearby clump river a shiny object. It was a clasp brown and bronze springs — spiral rings fingerclip.
It is worth noting the characteristic shape (side carving) and the material—birch wood—which is exceptionally light, but, due to its lack of durability, was used very rarely for the production of skis; ash wood, beech wood, or—in special cases—hickory wood was usually used instead.
A string and keyboard musical instrument. A rectangular box with keys and the complete playing mechanism is placed on the upper board. The shape of the instrument is similar to a violin. The upper board is made of coniferous wood, the bottom of beech wood.
The so-called “Polish” violin. Its original bow has not survived. The violin was made by Antoni Hybel from Ropa, a village situated close to Gorlice. The then press wrote about the instrument in 1925: “because of this invention, a complete reform of the structure of a violin took place.
One of liturgical utensils of the Jewish faith is a vessel for scents called a spice tower (Hebrew: bassamim, psumin-byksy) used during Sabbath. This spice tower represents the most common turret type in the shape of a multi-storey synagogue.
The history of ski jumping in Poland dates back to the early 20th century. The first world records were beaten by Sondre Norheim from Norway (30.5 m in 1860). These days, jumps have lengths of more than 240 metres (Adam Małysz has jumped 225 m; in the 2012/2013 season, Piotr Żyła and Kamil Stoch reached lengths of 232.5 m).
James Hammond obtained a patent for the construction of the machine in 1881, and its serial production began in 1884. The presented model 12 was created in the early 20th century in two versions; one was characterized by an arched two-row keyboard, typical of the early Hammonds; and the second, with a three-row keyboard, was typical for three-register machines. The final version, seen in the presented object, was introduced at the end of the nineteenth century along with the growing competition of lever-typing machines, with a typical arrangement of keys in straight rows.
A characteristic feature of the northern skis—used in the Scandinavian Peninsula and in Finland—was the disproportion in the length of two skis in one pair: one was longer (the one exhibited in the collection of Małopolska’s Virtual Museums measures 260 cm) and is additionally equipped with a sliding groove; the other, shorter one was used for pushing off (in the case of the present exhibit, the other ski has not survived).
A characteristic feature of telemark skiing was the release of the foot: the shoe was attached to the ski only with the tips of the toes. The ski — which is in the collection of the Małopolska’s Virtual Museums — is a special type of telemark ski, because of the innovation that the creator of a new type of binding, Bilgeri...
Hurdy-gurdy was an instrument known across Europe whose history dates back to the Medieval period. In the Polish territories, as early as the beginning of the 20th century, the tradition of playing this instrument was in decline. A hurdy-gurdy was one of the instruments used to perform church, court and folk music. Hurdy-gurdy performances accompanied dances and songs.
Since 1887 the collection of the Archaeological Museum of Kraków has boasted the equipment of a rich Scythian female tomb situated under the mound of a kurgan, examined in Ryzhanovka near Zvenyhorodka in Ukraine by Gotfryd Ossowski, the first curator of the Museum of National Antiquities (from which today’s Archaeological Museum has originated) at the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences in Kraków.
The exhibited type of ski was introduced by Norwegians as a mountain ski. Its dimensions—length, the width of the tip in the middle and in the tail—indicate that it is a “telemark” type. The ski has a bowed tip and is bent under the foot, but lacks a groove (its absence is characteristic of mountain skis). The Norwegian binding, made of reed—which was used in the late nineteenth century—is also noteworthy.
The telemark ski, with the Huitfeld “B” binding, was probably made in Berlin. In the upper part of the skis, there are visible traces of previous reed bindings.
A metal cross, open-work, decorated with green and white imitations glass of precious stones. The object was used as a prop at the School of Fine Arts in Kraków.
The present helmet is of eastern origin. It was popular, among others, in Persia and Turkey, from where it was adopted in Poland. In the 17th and 18th centuries, such helmets were worn, among others, by towarzysze pancerni [literally: armoured companions], a type of Polish cavalry unit. The bascinet presented on the website probably comes from Persia.
Coming probably from Turkey, a beautifully decorated zither from the turn of the 19th century; artistic handwork. A bottom board of a sound box is made of a coniferous tree wood, glued together out of three parts, painted dark brown. Veneered sides, the top part of the sound box from the edge to the tailpiece is covered with parchment leather; the string nodes are made of bone.
Chaji may last for several hours and during this time guests have the opportunity to taste thick koicha tea and light usucha tea, as well as to refresh themselves with a light dish or to taste sweets. All the elements are chosen specifically for such a meeting. In terms of form and motif, utensils should match the season and the occasion. Even the dishes reflect the seasonal characteristics of nature. When speaking about uniqueness of each chaji, the Japanese use a phrase ichigo ichie, meaning: the only meeting like this in life, and the cultivation of this lifestyle is called the Tea Way.