Karol Wojtyła wrote in his autobiographical sketches: “The war was an obstacle to completing my studies [Polish Philology at the Jagiellonian University] and the living conditions during the occupation forced me to work as a manual worker at the Solvay Company in Borek Fałęcki, near Kraków, between 1940 and 1944.
The charter of the shoemakers’ guild is laced with a parchment stripe at the bottom. It is a legal document regulating the structure and tasks of this guild in the town of Gorlice. It was drawn up in Latin. The existence of the charter of the shoemakers’ guild in the 2nd half of the 15th century (the year of 1450) showed the high position of the town with a perfectly developing craftsmanship, and — what followed — the functioning of guilds.
An ostracon from the collection of the Field Museum No. 2 which was established thanks to the Independent Carpathian Rifle Brigade that fought in the Middle East during the World War II and reached Egypt where they managed to obtain museum exhibits.
Ostraka, pieces of broken pottery vessels, were used for writing a variety of different texts, most often tax receipts. They were used instead of the more expensive papyrus. Most ostraka come from Upper Egypt and the oases, where, unlike in Fayum and the localities of Middle Egypt, papyrus was not cultivated on a broad scale.
Receipt of payment of laografia (head tax). In Roman times, Jews inhabited district IV in Apollinopolis Magna. The regular head tax in the 1st-2nd century was 16 drachmas a year. Receipt for payment of 8 drachmas (as in this document) or 4 drachmas are proof of the tax having been paid in installments.
Commentary: The divergence in the dating of this document results from the fact that the eleventh year may equally well refer to the emperors Vespasian or Domitian. Abraimos is well evidenced as a variant of the name Abraham.
Karol Wojtyła obtained his master’s degree in theology from the Jagiellonian University on 24 November 1948. The document contains information about studies completed between 1942 and 1947 and exams passed. Earlier, before joining the seminary, Wojtyła also studied Polish at the Jagiellonian University.
This is a secondary school leaving certificate, issued in Wadowice, on 14 May 1938. It has been copied onto two black and white sheets. On the first page, there is a photo of Karol Wojtyła, with the round stamp of High School Certificate No. 38, signed by the Chairman and Members of the State Examination Commission.
The seal of Koszyce imprinted in green wax, hanging on a parchment belt attached to a document probably issued for coopers in Koszyce. In the stamp field, there is a figure of Saint Stanislaus — another symbol of the town, along with two little baskets.
Konstancja Studzińska (1787–1853) była pierwszą kobietą w Europie, która ukończyła studia i otrzymała dyplom magistra farmacji. Fakt ukończenia studiów farmaceutycznych przez kobietę w 1 poł. XIX wieku, w czasie, kiedy kobiety nie miały możliwości studiowania, można uznać za wyjątkowy. Konstancja Studzińska pracowała wówczas w prowadzonej przez siostry zakonne aptece szpitala św. Łazarza w Krakowie. Władze uniwersyteckie zarzucały zakonnym aptekarkom niekompetencję i dążyły do tego, by zarządzanie apteką przekazać odpowiednio przygotowanym do zawodu aptekarzom.
Tytus Chałubiński’s herbarium of Tatra mosses is the most valuable botanical collection at the Dr Tytus Chałubiński Tatra Museum.
Doctor Tytus Chałubiński (1820–1889), a man of broad horizons and multiple interests, a great physician with a passion for botany, is one of the legendary figures of Zakopane.
In ancient Greece, if you were harmed by someone whom you were unable to bring into court (e.g. a citizen of another city), you could seek compensation, with the consent of your polis, by seizing the property of the apprehended perpetrator or even the property of any other (innocent!) citizen of the same city from where the criminal came. This procedure was referred to as syle. Special places where individuals threatened with syle were offered sanctuary were known as asylia, which is the origin of today’s term “asylum”.
Historians define the privilege as a document issued by the monarch to a particular group, state or — like in the case of Gródek and Kąclowa — a concrete place. It was enforced only on a particular land which was mentioned in the document of the privilege.
Stefania Wojtulanis-Karpińska “Barbara” was actively involved in all types of aviation sports, starting with her participation — as a navigator — in the National Balloon Competition in 1936. In 1938, she participated — also as a navigator — in the 8th National Air Competition; in May 1939, Stefania competed in the Ninth National Balloon Championships as a balloon pilot.
A parchment with texts in Latin, issued in Wiewiórka, a holiday residence of the Tarnowski family. Suspended on an olive coloured rope is the knight seal of Jan Tarnowski – round, made of red wax, in a wax bowl of a natural colour, with an image of the Leliwa coat of arms, which functions as a symbol of Tarnów to this today, with the legend “IOANNIS COMES IN TARNOW.”
The document is the confirmation of the statute of the Grand Guild of Koszyce by the king, issued a year earlier by the city council, which is also presented on our website.