Speed Graphic cameras were first used in the 1930s. During the following decades, American photojournalists used large, reporter cameras, equipped with a rangefinder, usually in the format of 3¼ x 4¼ inches or 4 x 5 inches. These were usually the products of the American label of Graflex photographic equipment. The history of this company begins in 1887, as the company of William F. Folmer and William E. Schwing, producing gas lamps and bicycles. Ten years later in New York, Folmer & Schwing Manufacturing Co. began the production of cameras, which soon became its main product. In the years 1907–1926, the company belonged to Eastman Kodak (F.&S. Division of Eastman Kodak Co.), based in Rochester. The manufacturing plants re-established themselves, taking the name Folmer Graflex Corporation, and then, in 1945, Graflex Inc.
In 1954, with the launch of production of a twin-lens reflex camera Start, the production of photo processing accessories commenced in the Warsaw Photo-Optical Works. One such device was an enlarger named Krokus. This name was given to subsequent models of enlargers produced until the 1990s. Enlargers of this family bore additional digital marking, e.g. Krokus 3, 4 N Color, 44, 69S, and were produced for various negative formats. Enlargers from Warsaw Photo-Optical Works satisfied the needs of amateur photographers in Poland and many other countries, being a perfect export product for years.
Brunsviga 13 is a manual mechanical calculating machine (arithmometer) with a 13-position counter. Arithmometers were patented in the 19th century in France and were designed to perform addition and subtraction, whereas multiplication and division could be conducted by several operations of adding and subtracting. They were driven manually (with a crank or a lever).
Presented device was used for juicing fruit. Its effect was to crushing the fruit in a wooden barrel with a large knob located above it, combined with a screw placed inside the device. In this way a fluid, which presumably used not only for food but also for the preparation of various, often health potions.
Hunting arquebus with a wheel-lock, after Jan Klemens Branicki (1689–1771), the Grand Hetman of the Crown.
Old-time hunting, being an elite form of entertainment for the highest levels of society, required an adequate frame, created by, e.g., luxurious firearms. This kind of weapon was usually made from precious materials and artfully decorated in a style typical of the epoch.
This 7–39 radio set was produced by Polskie Zakłady Philips in the penultimate season of its production (1938/39) that was interrupted by the outbreak of World War II. Polskie Zakłady Philips was the largest radio manufacturing plant in Poland between World War I and World War II. It was established by a Dutch company of Philips in 1922 as Polsko–Holenderska Fabryka Lampek Elektrycznych S.A. (The Polish-Dutch Plant of Electric Lamps). It was renamed to Philips in 1928.
The history of ski jumping in Poland dates back to the early 20th century. The first world records were beaten by Sondre Norheim from Norway (30.5 m in 1860). These days, jumps have lengths of more than 240 metres (Adam Małysz has jumped 225 m; in the 2012/2013 season, Piotr Żyła and Kamil Stoch reached lengths of 232.5 m).
Today, most researchers believe that Leonardo da Vinci — whose drawings were developed technically and used practically in Germany at the beginning of the 16th century — was the first proponent of the idea of a wheel-lock, which led to the construction of the first wheel-lock, which, in turn, made it possible to popularize short guns, otherwise known as pistols.
The percussion-cap pistol, double-barrelled, with a wooden handle, was made by the Lepage company in Paris. Its fittings are decorated with floral motifs. The exhibit is also signed, which allows one to determine its place of production. Near the chambers, between the barrels...
Following the Wisła TV set, the black and white Belweder TV set was the second TV set to be produced in Poland and the first one entirely designed in our country. Laboratory works commenced in 1955 with the assumption that its production would be based on technologies available in Poland, on the contrary the Wisła TV set was produced on the basis of Soviet license and parts.
James Hammond obtained a patent for the construction of the machine in 1881, and its serial production began in 1884. The presented model 12 was created in the early 20th century in two versions; one was characterized by an arched two-row keyboard, typical of the early Hammonds; and the second, with a three-row keyboard, was typical for three-register machines. The final version, seen in the presented object, was introduced at the end of the nineteenth century along with the growing competition of lever-typing machines, with a typical arrangement of keys in straight rows.
One of the two twin longcase clocks, decorated with the imitation of green Far Eastern lacquer, comes from the castle in Podhorce, belonging originally to the Rzewuski family and subsequently purchased together with its furnishings by the Sanguszko family. The clock cases distinguish themselves with the pseudo-Chinese decoration painted in gold, enriched with European motifs and “Chinese” figural scenes and landscapes.
A characteristic feature of the northern skis—used in the Scandinavian Peninsula and in Finland—was the disproportion in the length of two skis in one pair: one was longer (the one exhibited in the collection of Małopolska’s Virtual Museums measures 260 cm) and is additionally equipped with a sliding groove; the other, shorter one was used for pushing off (in the case of the present exhibit, the other ski has not survived).
A characteristic feature of telemark skiing was the release of the foot: the shoe was attached to the ski only with the tips of the toes. The ski — which is in the collection of the Małopolska’s Virtual Museums — is a special type of telemark ski, because of the innovation that the creator of a new type of binding, Bilgeri...
A field smithy was donated to the Locksmith Company in 1916 by the Centre for the Restoration of the Country located in Vienna. A portable hearth popularly called a field smithy was a fixed element of a padlock-making workshop. A smithy consists of three main elements: a basin, a bellows, and a tuyere.
The characteristic feature of the presented clock is the unusual carved wooden and polychrome casing in the shape of a Hungarian hussar. The clockwork mechanism with a round clock face, made in Bochnia...
The oldest clock in the collection of the Historical Museum of the City of Kraków is a tabletop turret clock. The name of this type of originates comes from their form, which resembles the shapes of a miniature church tower. The rectangular, brass housing of the clock mechanism was engraved, gilded and placed on a pedestal.
In peasant farmhouses butter was usually made by whipping cream in wooden stave churns. However, this must have been an exhausting activity: hands fainted and the back numbed. Nonetheless, whoever has ever tried real cottage butter shall never regret the effort.
The Ring is an amateur cinematographic projector for 35 mm wide tape, made in 1900–1919 in Germany (Bavaria). The construction of the cinematograph constructed by the Lumière brothers in 1895 and the rapid development of film art ...
“Magic Lantern” – a projector for large-format transparencies framed in glass frames with a maximum format of 15 x 15 cm. The projector was produced over the years 1890–1918 by an unknown manufacturer in Austro-Hungary. Magic lanterns were devices known since the Renaissance times, used for projecting pictures painted on glass onto the screen. Later, they began to be used for displaying photographic images – diapositives.