A Fischer ski jumping ski without binding. The traces of the screws, with which the bindings were fixed, start 60 cm from the heel (in total, they appear over a 42 cm section).
The upper side of the ski features the handwritten inscription: “For the Museum Chamber in Piwniczna Małysz Adam”.
During the first centuries of the existence of mines, small spoil was transferred from the face to the shaft in the basins and reeds; salt rocks and barrels were rolled with the help of walacz rods or pulled on the szlafy (the so-called sanice). The szlafy are mentioned only in 18th century sources; however, given the fact that they have been used on the surface long before the mine was created, it can be assumed that they were used in the Wieliczka salt pits in the Middle Ages.
Brocading (from the French word brocher) is a technique involving the introduction of an additional metal thread (gold or silver) or silk thread into the fabric. This thread passed through the width of the fabric only at the spot where the ornament appeared, thus creating a pattern.
Chinese and Japanese porcelain was once an extremely valuable and desirable product in Europe, which was already being imported in the Middle Ages. It was called “white gold”, because it commanded value comparable to this precious metal and was often used as its substitute (e.g. as a gift). At that time, porcelain was viewed as a synonym of luxury and its possession testified to the splendour of the house; only the wealthiest people — mainly royalty — could afford it. In the modern era — in connection with the fashion for Orientalism — porcelain gained such great popularity, that a great effort was made to discover how it was manufactured: one of the most guarded secrets of the East.
Ignacy Łukasiewicz came to Gorlice in the autumn of 1953. He was 31 years old then and already had quite substantial experience in research on distillation of petroleum. Together with Jan Zeh, he carried it out in a Lviv laboratory in the “Pod Złotą Gwiazdą“ pharmacy where both of them worked. Between 1952 and 1953, they managed to...
Pathé Baby (COQ D'OR) — is an amateur cinematographic projector for a 9.5 mm film strip, produced in 1937–1940 by the Pathé Frères works in Paris. Founded in 1896, Société Pathé Frères...
Pseudo-solarisation is associated with the Sabatier effect and is visually similar to solarisation. It is characterized by a partial reversal of the negative image to the positive one under the influence of additional — even illumining — photosensitive material during the development.
A weight for the town mining scales, once standing on the market square in Olkusz. The ore and melted metal were weighed on it to calculate the tax due to the crown treasury.
A combination padlock, an armour snuffbox, also called a letter-gate padlock, a trick padlock or an artificial padlock. In order to open it, one has to know the right code, which after setting on a padlock enables one to uncover a keyhole. After this, a padlock can be opened with a key.
An old tool made of wood from Świątniki Górne, closely related to the workshop manufacturing padlocks. its main element is a wooden pole with a flywheel mounted on it. The horizontally placed handle is connected to the pole by a cord.
Perkolator jest przyrządem służącym do ekstrakcji surowców roślinnych metodą polegającą na ciągłym, powolnym przepływie rozpuszczalnika przez warstwę surowca. Metoda ta nazywana jest perkolacją (łac. percolo, przepływać) lub rzadziej deplasacją. Dzięki niej otrzymuje się ekstrakty znacznie...
Pigulnica to urządzenie służące do wytwarzania pigułek (pilulae, od łac. pila — piłeczka, kulka), jednej z najstarszych form leków. Prezentowany eksponat konstrukcji Eugena Dietericha (II poł. XIX wieku) składa się z drewnianej podstawy oraz z ruchomej deseczki. Na obu elementach...
National HRO Senior is an American shortwave receiver, used both in civilian and military radio-communication service. The HRO was made in 1934 for the National Radio Company in the USA. The receivers were produced in many versions: HRO Senior (prod. 1935–1943), HRO-Jr (prod. 1936–1943), RAS (prod. 1939–1945), HRO-M and HRO–5 (prod. 1944–1945).
The oil painting—Oil wells in Lipinki—by Tadeusz Rybkowski was painted in 1894. Originally, it was hung at the manor of the Byszewski family in Lipinki, a town rich in oil deposits and well-known for its exploitation and processing of these resources.
The earliest source of confirmation regarding use of oil lamps in the Wieliczka Mine dates back to the beginning of the 16th century, but there are no exact data on the shape and material from which they were made. Probably, two types of oil lamps were used: clay – to be held in the hand or adapted to be placed on a flat surface; and metal – with a hook for carrying and hanging, connected with a container for tallow. The shapes of both types are similar – pear-shaped and vertical.
Ensign Midget Model 55 — a miniature camera designed to take the Ensign E 10 type of film and deliver photographs in the 3.5 x 4.5 cm format. The camera was manufactured between 1934 and 1940 by a London-based company called Houghton (UK).
This is a foldable stereoscopic camera for glass discs, with a 4.5 x 10.7 cm format. The camera is equipped with two lenses — Tessar 1: 4.5 f = 6.5 cm—by Carl Zeiss from Jena. It took pictures (stereo-pair) on a 4.5 x 10.7 cm....
The Ernoflex (Model II) is a single-lens reflex camera with a folding structure, for cut film and glass discs, with a 9 x 12 cm format, produced in 1910–1920, by the company Heinrich Ernemann AG from Dresden (Germany). The camera body is double-folded, made entirely of metal, and covered with black leather with a decorative texture.
The “Mercury” Stereoscope is a Holmes system stereoscopic viewer for stereoscopic photographs, with a single 7 x 7 cm image, produced in 1900–1920 by Underwood & Underwood from New York (USA). One of the simplest designs of stereoscopic viewers was the “open” viewer system, invented by Oliver Wendell Holmes in 1861. This was an extremely simple design, equipped with an eyepiece with lenses, including an appropriately curved wooden or metal sun visor. The Underwood & Underwood Company sold millions of stereoscopic photos, thanks to this very cheap production model of the viewer.
The American padlock Samson Eight Lever. How did it end up in the Świątniki Museum? It bears traces of levering up the sheet metal. Somebody probably wanted to check how its mechanism worked. Initially, padlock makers from Świątniki watched how others did it. On the basis of the knowledge gained in this way, they created their own mechanisms, being a compilation of those peeped at others.