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“The head of Doryphoros” – a plaster cast of an antique sculpture

A statue of a young man carrying a spear (gr. Δορυφόρος, Doryphoros) was found in Pompeii in front of the entrance to the so-called Samnite Palaestra in 1797. The statue is made of Carrara marble and originally stood on a pedestal made of volcanic tuff. It dates back to the 2nd or 1st century BC and is a copy of a lost bronze original made by Polykleitos in the 5th century BC. The statue from Pompeii in Naples (Museo Nazionale, inv. No. 6011) is considered the most complete copy of the classic sculpture. Normal 0 21 false false false PL X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:Standardowy; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; border:none;}

“Gudea” – a plaster cast of an antique sculpture

In the Louvre’s department of Oriental collections, there are more than twenty sculptures considered to be images of Gudea (in total, over thirty images of the ruler have been preserved). Some of the statues present the ruler in a sitting position, some in a standing position. The present plaster copy belongs to the second group. There are five such statues in the Louvre. They all come from Telo: an archaeological site situated at the location of the ancient city of Girsu in present-day Iraq. All five standing statues of Gudea are devoid of heads. The statues from Telo were found during excavations conducted by the French between 1877 and 1933. The cast in the collection of the Academy of Fine Arts in Kraków was made in accordance with the so-called E Statue (reference number AO 6), which was discovered in 1881 by Ernest Choquin de Serzec, who led the excavations at Telo between 1877 and 1900. Normal 0 21 false false false PL X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:Standardowy; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; border:none;}

“Doryphoros” – a plaster cast of an antique sculpture

A statue of a young man carrying a spear (gr. Δορυφόρος, Doryphoros) was found in Pompeii in front of the entrance to the so-called Samnite Palaestra in 1797. The statue is made of Carrara marble and originally stood on a pedestal made of volcanic tuff. It dates back to the 2nd or 1st century BC and is a copy of a lost bronze original made by Polykleitos in the 5th century BC. The statue from Pompeii in Naples (Museo Nazionale, inv. No. 6011) is considered the most complete copy of the classic sculpture.

“Aphrodite of Milos” – a plaster cast of an antique sculpture

Normal 0 21 false false false PL X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:Standardowy; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; border:none;} The original Greek statue was found in 1820 on the Cycladic island of Milos (ancient Greek: Μῆλος, pronounced: Mêlos modern Greek: Μήλος, pronounced: Mýlos) and purchased by Marquis de Rivière, who, back then, was the ambassador of France in Istanbul. He gave the sculpture to Louis XVIII, who, in the following year, handed it over to the Louvre, where it remains to this day. The Aphrodite of Milos became part of the French national collection of antiques, which was to compete with the collections of the British Museum, slightly earlier enriched with the Elgin Marbles: sculptures and reliefs imported from the Acropolis in Athens by Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin.

Hubert Gromny, Xavery Wolski, “Crystal Skulls Are Modern Fakes? Adventure Movie”

Historical conspiracy theories – the Muhlenberg legend, spectral time hypothesis, the Protocols of the Elders of Zion – have occupied the minds of a large group of scholars and lovers of the past for centuries, being also one of the most controversial and, at the same time, interesting elements of contemporary culture. For Hubert Gromny and Xavery Wolski, they became an inspiration to create the installation Crystal skulls are modern fakes? Adventure Movie. Starting from the eclectic nature of conspiracy theories, drawing randomly from historical science, pop culture, and futurology, the creators tested their typical determinants and created a new conspiracy narrative. It questions the official theories referring to the origins of the Slavic peoples. In this attempt to mediate conspiracy theories, the artists created the character of Janusz “Johnny” Bzibziak PhD – a Polish Indiana Jones – associated with the Archaeological Museum of Kraków. The protagonist is a specialist in the field of research on nomadic peoples and a proponent of a theory postulating links between the ancestors of Slavs, Cimmerians, and Scythians.

A stone sculpture – “The Little Ox of Wawel”

The oldest sculpture in the round to be found in Wawel. The sculpture is regarded to be one element of a larger set (a detail enriching a door portal or a part of the interior furnishing of the building).

Ammonite “Euaspidoceras paucituberkulatum Arkell”

Presented ammonite is from the upper jurassic period. It is a very large and well-preserved type of this species. It have a flat spiral coiled shell, richly ornamented.

Ammonite mineralised with quartz and chalcedony

Presented ammonite is unique, because of its individual mineralization, which is very rarely in the singular objects from this area. Mineralization with chalcedony and quartz, on line of the helix, created holes with a rich and colorful cross-section. Thanks to this...

Crinoids

Appellative of crinoids (Crinoidea) comes from the Greek words krinon, which means lily, and eidos ‒ form. This marine animals characterized by calyx-shape body, have also the stem and arms. Crinoids lived in prehistoric sea c. 200 million years ago. They belonged to the echinoderms.

Sphalerite

Presented specimen is unique because of the locus of occurrence holomorphic zinc and lead ores. It takes the form of fine-grained, dense masses, which, after surface polishing, are very effective - as in the case of our sphalerite.

Ichthyosaur’s teeth

Presented specimens are fossils with separately preserved three teeth of Ichthyosaurus, dating back to the Upper Jurassic period, namely from —163 to —145 million years ago.

Calcite with marcasite

Presented specimen is a dense and grainy aggregate of marcasite, on which surface grown the crystals of calcite.

Halite with organic inclusions

This specimen from the collection of The Geological Museum of the AGH University of Science and Technology is unusual, because in its crystal structure is a foreign body. This phenomenon is called inclusion (known as organic infix too). Inclusion has its strict regularities, for example – the presence of another mineral in the mineral, like diamond in a diamond structure. Sometimes, completely by accident...

Sphalerite — Galena

Sphalerite is a zinc blende; and galena, is a lead sulfide (lat. galena means lead ore), both are common minerals from the class of sulphide.

Marcasite from “Pomorzany” Coalmine

Marcasite is a common mineral, which is finding mainly in sedimentary rocks, like limestones, marls or clayey rocks. It belongs to the class of sulphides. Marcasite at increased temperatures undergoes irreversibly in pyrite, because it is a impermanent form of pyrite. Marcasite and pyrite are polymorphic variants of iron sulfide. It has a brass-yellow color with a greenish tinge and a metallic sheen.

Sphalerite from “Pomorzany” Coalmine

Delusive, sneaky, deceptive, uncertain ... What makes sphalerite deserved such adjectives? For a very long time, geologists couldn’t identify this mineral. Finally, the study confirmed that it is a zinc ore.

Halite crystals from Crystal Grottoes

Aggregate, the accumulation of minerals among rocks of different composition and structure, is the dictionary definition of the features of this specimen.

Salt block

The basic method for moulding the salt bed in the Wieliczka mine was to tear it out with the use of iron wedges; the cuboid blocks were then treated and transformed into barrel shapes or a cylinder for trading purposes. Those blocks were the main product of salt mines in the region of Kraków for six centuries — from the second half of the 13...

Salt stalactite

This was used to identify a stalactite with an elongated, spindly-shape, hanging from the ceiling, for example, in a cave. It turns out that, in the case of halite, secondary crystallizations that grow from top to bottom can also take forms that are far from their classic appearance.

White salt stalagmite

This consists of crystalline flowstone halite, formed in the form of a “Christmas tree” stalagmite, growing in the form of a “shrub” composed of salt crystals. The specimen has a white colour with a hint of grey. The natural complement to a stalactite is usually a stalagmite — a similar structure growing from the ground.