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Ushabti figures

The ushabti figures — artistically perfect and finely made — were purchased from the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities in Cairo by soldiers of the Polish Independent Carpathian Rifle Brigade during WW II and subsequently granted to the Archaeological Museum. The pillar at the back of the figure reaches the lower edge of a tripartite wig, finely fashioned in regular wisps exposing the ears.

Aset-iri-khet-es sarcophagus

The sarcophagus made of sycamore wood was found during the excavations conducted in 1907 in el-Gamhud by the first Polish Egyptologist, Tadeusz Smoleński. It is a “belly coffin” type of sarcophagus; an anthropoid one, with a flat bottom and a convex lid. The head of the coffin is covered with a blue wig. The breasts are decorated with a semi-circular necklace finished with falcon heads, topped with solar disks.

Tomb stele from Ginari Tafah

The sculpture was purchased in Cairo by soldiers of the Polish Independent Carpathian Rifle Brigade during WW II. The stele comes from the Christian site in Lower Nubia (present day Egypt) in Ginari Tafah. The tombstone is topped with an imitation of a conch. Traces of dark red paint on the tombstone indicate that it must have been painted originally. The epitaph begins with the formula declaring the death of the person called Elisabeth.

Pre Columbian bowl

This three-coloured bowl on an annular foot, decorated with so-called negative painting, using wax as a reserve material, belongs to the pre-Columbian Carchi-Nariño highland culture from the border of today's Ecuador and Colombia, dating back to around 700 or 800 AD and 1500 AD.

Costume of a Scythian princess from Ryzhanovka

Since 1887 the collection of the Archaeological Museum of Kraków has boasted the equipment of a rich Scythian female tomb situated under the mound of a kurgan, examined in Ryzhanovka near Zvenyhorodka in Ukraine by Gotfryd Ossowski, the first curator of the Museum of National Antiquities (from which today’s Archaeological Museum has originated) at the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences in Kraków.

Tomb stele from Ginari Tafah 2

The stele comes from the Christian necropolis in Lower Nubia (present day Egypt). It is one of the three stelae from that region presented on our website and one of seven stelae stored in Poland. The inscription placed on the stele is written in the Old Nubian language, which is indicated, for example, by the use of colons for dividing numbers.

Svetovid – Zbruch Idol

The statue presented here was found in 1848 in the Zbruch River near the village of Liczkowce (today: Lychkivtsi) (Ternopil Oblast, Ukraine). The sculpture is a four-sided pillar topped with four faces under a tall hat. Below there are three figural representations in the three-tier arrangement, with the division marked with plastic slats. Three sides of the lowest tier depict a kneeling figure with raised arms. In one case, it is a man (the moustache is marked)...

Hubert Gromny, Xavery Wolski, “Crystal Skulls Are Modern Fakes? Adventure Movie”

Historical conspiracy theories – the Muhlenberg legend, spectral time hypothesis, the Protocols of the Elders of Zion – have occupied the minds of a large group of scholars and lovers of the past for centuries, being also one of the most controversial and, at the same time, interesting elements of contemporary culture. For Hubert Gromny and Xavery Wolski, they became an inspiration to create the installation Crystal skulls are modern fakes? Adventure Movie. Starting from the eclectic nature of conspiracy theories, drawing randomly from historical science, pop culture, and futurology, the creators tested their typical determinants and created a new conspiracy narrative. It questions the official theories referring to the origins of the Slavic peoples. In this attempt to mediate conspiracy theories, the artists created the character of Janusz “Johnny” Bzibziak PhD – a Polish Indiana Jones – associated with the Archaeological Museum of Kraków. The protagonist is a specialist in the field of research on nomadic peoples and a proponent of a theory postulating links between the ancestors of Slavs, Cimmerians, and Scythians.

Dacia bowl

A clay vessel of an ashen colour, turned on a potter's wheel. It has the form of a shallow bowl or a platter on a hollow leg. It has been preserved in its entirety; few imperfections were corrected with plaster. An analysis of the form, the manner in which the vessel was made, and the analogies suggest that the bowl should be associated with the Dacian environment.

Cartonnage coffin from el-Hiba

The coffin form, decoration and the character of the hieroglyphic signs find close parallels on objects from el-Hiba. The hieroglyph form and the mistakes, which are proof of a poor understanding of the text, date the object to the Late Ptolemaic or Early Roman period and suggest a provincial origins.

Aset-iri-khet-es mummy cartonnage

The gilded cartonnage was found during the excavations conducted in 1907 in el-Gamhud by the first Polish Egyptologist, Tadeusz Smoleński. The openwork cartonnage is made up of several layers of linen stuck together. On the front and on the reverse, chalk undercoat was placed as the base for polychrome.

Greek ostrakon – receipt of payment of “laografia”

Receipt of payment of laografia (head tax). In Roman times, Jews inhabited district IV in Apollinopolis Magna. The regular head tax in the 1st-2nd century was 16 drachmas a year. Receipt for payment of 8 drachmas (as in this document) or 4 drachmas are proof of the tax having been paid in installments.

A tombstone with the image of a “tree of life” from the double-apse rotunda – the so-called “church B” in Wawel

This tombstone consists of two elements and was found during excavation works carried out under the guidance of Stanisław Kozieł and Mieczysław Fraś in the area of the southern wing of building 5 of Wawel in the years 1966–75. The tombstone used to cover a tomb located in the area of the western apse of the double-apse rotunda relics, called church B” by the researchers.

Fibula of Łużyce

The clasp was discovered by Lidia Dobrzańska, primary school student, residing in Dabrowa Tarnowska summer of 1955 years. The girl, a dip in the Dunajec in Żabno noticed a nearby clump river a shiny object. It was a clasp brown and bronze springs — spiral rings fingerclip.

Celtic glass bead

The glass bead was accidently discovered during the surface research conducted in 1997 in the town of Dziewięcioły (District of Miechów, the Małopolska Province). It was made of yellow opaque glass...

Head of a ruler

The head is a fragment of the ruler's statue, it is covered with nemes [scarf] with a wide head-band over the forehead, decorated with the insignia of the Pharaonic power uraeus [cobra]. It is a face with faded features; the eyes are shown without detail; it has a wide nose with distended nostrils.

Knobby amphora

This is the second example of the knobby amphorae from the Witów area presented on our website. It comes from the Bronze Age. It was discovered during excavation research conducted in Witów in the post-war period at excavation site no. 1.

Figurine of sitting ibis (small)

This well-made figurine represents a sitting ibis with big head on arched neck, long beak and claws. The details of the beak and legs, as well as of the feathers, are engraved. An ornamental collar (?) masks the junction of...

Greek inscription from Cirenaica

In ancient Greece, if you were harmed by someone whom you were unable to bring into court (e.g. a citizen of another city), you could seek compensation, with the consent of your polis, by seizing the property of the apprehended perpetrator or even the property of any other (innocent!) citizen of the same city from where the criminal came. This procedure was referred to as syle. Special places where individuals threatened with syle were offered sanctuary were known as asylia, which is the origin of today’s term “asylum”.

Pot

The first man settled in Witów, lying in a distance of 4 km from Koszyce, as early as several thousand years ago. The first archaeological finds from this area are dated back to that time — ca. 5 thousand years ago. The local hill on the river was a perfect place to settle. It had its natural defensive features, which were eagerly used by our ancestors who founded subsequent settlements in the Witów area. They left their traces there: vessels, tools, ornaments.