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The “Mercury” Stereoscope viewer by Underwood & Underwood

The “Mercury” Stereoscope is a Holmes system stereoscopic viewer for stereoscopic photographs, with a single 7 x 7 cm image, produced in 1900–1920 by Underwood & Underwood from New York (USA). One of the simplest designs of stereoscopic viewers was the “open” viewer system, invented by Oliver Wendell Holmes in 1861. This was an extremely simple design, equipped with an eyepiece with lenses, including an appropriately curved wooden or metal sun visor. The Underwood & Underwood Company sold millions of stereoscopic photos, thanks to this very cheap production model of the viewer.

Tenaculum — stand for apothecary scales

Statyw, tzw. tenaculum, na którym zawieszano niewielkie wagi ręczne, pochodzi ze szpitalnej, klasztornej apteki oo. bonifratrów w Pilchowicach. Apteka została otwarta w 1819 roku, a statyw, jak wynika z napisów na nim umieszczonych, został ufundowany dla apteki w roku 1820...

Garden dress

Crinoline dress made of white muslin printed with motifs of water plants at the bottom of the skirt, and flying butterflies and other insects above. A short camisole lined with a white fabric with whalebones and fastened in the front with buttons. Slotted and flared long sleeves sewn with frills.

Bike

Tadeusz Seweryn (1894–1975) — Director of the Ethnographic Museum in Kraków — describes this bike in the scientific catalogue sheet as follows: ”A bike made of wood by a cattleman, Franciszek Gucwa. The full wheels (spokeless) are connected with wooden ploughs. The front one has handlebars, heavily fitted with iron at the place where it is connected to the axis of the bike.

Wooden bike

This small bike made by a peasant boy for his younger brother has no pedals or brakes – it is suitable only for downhill riding... We should pay attention to its construction – an indication of creativity and imagination. A two-wheeled bike with a frame of two wooden slats and handlebars made from a debarked stick.

The Marconi radio set — 4-LS/I model (serial number 7163)

The Marconi radio set is a high quality luxury battery-operated radio set produced by Polskie Zakłady Marconi S.A. This Warsaw branch of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company Ltd. London, the company established by the undisputed inventor of radiophony, Guglielmo Marconi, was established in 1928.

Radio Elektrit Majestic (serial number 7578)

The Majestic radio receiver is an example of the production of one of the largest pre-war Polish radio companies — Towarzystwo Radiotechniczne Elektrit. This model was awarded the gold medal at the Radio Exhibition in Paris in 1936. Little wonder that a press advertisement from the 1930s described it as “the receiver for the most demanding”.

Stereoscope viewer from Austro-Hungary

The stereoscopic viewer of Brewster’s system for stereoscopic photos (slides), in the single 7 x 7 cm image format, was manufactured in Austria-Hungary in the early twentieth century...

Laboratory press

Prasa apteczna tłokowa służyła do wytłaczania (expressio) surowców roślinnych, wymagających dużej siły nacisku. Otrzymywano w ten sposób soki z owoców, liści i korzeni lub oleje z nasion. Prasa tłokowa składała się z drewnianej podstawy, do której przytwierdzony był...

Pistol with circular lock

Today, most researchers believe that Leonardo da Vinci — whose drawings were developed technically and used practically in Germany at the beginning of the 16th century — was the first proponent of the idea of a wheel-lock, which led to the construction of the first wheel-lock, which, in turn, made it possible to popularize short guns, otherwise known as pistols.

Pharmaceutical pill maker

Pigulnica to urządzenie służące do wytwarzania pigułek (pilulae, od łac. pila — piłeczka, kulka), jednej z najstarszych form leków. Prezentowany eksponat konstrukcji Eugena Dietericha (II poł. XIX wieku) składa się z drewnianej podstawy oraz z ruchomej deseczki. Na obu elementach...

Knee-boot jack

The knee-boot jack was donated by Mr Piwowarczyk of Dębowa in 1982. The base has a grooved fragment for a heel, used to put a foot with a boot on it. It is also equipped with a horseshoe-shaped protection that supports the boot and facilitates its taking off.

Pathé Baby film projector

Pathé Baby (COQ D'OR) — is an amateur cinematographic projector for a 9.5 mm film strip, produced in 1937–1940 by the Pathé Frères works in Paris. Founded in 1896, Société Pathé Frères...

Fruit squeezer

Presented device was used for juicing fruit. Its effect was to crushing the fruit in a wooden barrel with a large knob located above it, combined with a screw placed inside the device. In this way a fluid, which presumably used not only for food but also for the preparation of various, often health potions.

Typewriter “Picht”

The “Picht” machine is a Braille typewriter adapted for the blind, invented by Oskar Picht in 1899. Its production began three years later. The first single copies of typewriters for the blind had beene created earlier (since the 18th century), but they allowed correspondence only with the sighted. The development of the journal for the blind by Louis Braille in 1825, disseminated in the 2nd half of the 19th century, created new opportunities that were used by the inventor—and later the director ꟷ of the centre for the blind in Bydgoszcz, Oskar Picht.

Typewriter “Hammond”

James Hammond obtained a patent for the construction of the machine in 1881, and its serial production began in 1884. The presented model 12 was created in the early 20th century in two versions; one was characterized by an arched two-row keyboard, typical of the early Hammonds; and the second, with a three-row keyboard, was typical for three-register machines. The final version, seen in the presented object, was introduced at the end of the nineteenth century along with the growing competition of lever-typing machines, with a typical arrangement of keys in straight rows.

Typewriter “Columbia Bar-Lock”

The Bar-Lock typewriter is a patented design by the inventor and lawyer Charles Spiro in 1888. The presented model 10, was produced from 1900, under the brand Columbia Bar-Lock (in the United States) and Royal Bar-Lock in the British market. The keyboard used in the presented model is full, provided with 78 typing keys and one function key. The keyboard, constructed in this way, was adapted to English characters. For the needs of the non-English market, machines were produced with a set of 86 keys and only under the Royal Bar-Lock brand.

“Brunsviga 13” calculating machine

Brunsviga 13 is a manual mechanical calculating machine (arithmometer) with a 13-position counter. Arithmometers were patented in the 19th century in France and were designed to perform addition and subtraction, whereas multiplication and division could be conducted by several operations of adding and subtracting. They were driven manually (with a crank or a lever).

Cranked butter churn

In peasant farmhouses butter was usually made by whipping cream in wooden stave churns. However, this must have been an exhausting activity: hands fainted and the back numbed. Nonetheless, whoever has ever tried real cottage butter shall never regret the effort.

Gate padlock

The padlock may be opened by activating an appropriate latch, called a pillar. Thanks to this, the keyhole cover (the so-called “shield”) opens. Due to the high cost of production, such padlocks were manufactured very rarely, and the production process itself required mastering the craft of padlock making perfectly.