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“Wild boar” – a plaster cast of an antique sculpture

The plaster statue of a wild boar in the collection of the Academy of Fine Arts in Kraków is a copy of an ancient sculpture stored in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. This marble representation of a wild boar comes from Roman times and is a copy of the lost Hellenistic original probably made in Lysippos’circles. The Roman statue of a wild boar was presented to the Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo I de Medici (1519–1574) by Pope Pius IV (1499–1565). At the request of Cosimo de Medici, the sculptor Pietro Tacca (1577–1640) made a bronze copy, which contributed to the popularization of the statue. Normal 0 21 false false false PL X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:Standardowy; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; border:none;}

Greek ostrakon – receipt of payment of the “merismos” tax

Receipt of payment of the merismos tax. Date: April 21, AD 113. “Nikias son of Pasion, for merismos for the 16th year [of the reign] of Trajan, our lord, 4 drachmas. Year 16, Pharmouthi 26.” Commentary: Merismos was not a specific tax, but part of the tax burden concerning a specific community.

Greek ostrakon – receipt of payment of the Jewish tax

In AD 72, after suppressing the Jewish uprising in Palestine, the Romans levied a Jewish tax (ioudaikon telesma) on all Jews living in the Roman Empire. It exceeded 8 drachmas and was a considerable burden on the mostly poor residents of the Jewish district in Apollinopolis Magna. This document is a receipt for only part of the yearly burden.

Greek ostrakon – receipt of tax payment in cash

Receipt of tax payment in cash. Date: November 5, AD 108. “Bokchoris son of Iosepos, [as] payment of k... tax for the 12th year [of the reign] of Trajan, our lord. Year 12, Hathyr 9.” Commentary: Iosepos is a variant of the name of Josephus. The name of the tax is preserved but illegible.

Greek ostrakon – receipt of payment of “laografia”

Receipt of payment of laografia (head tax). In Roman times, Jews inhabited district IV in Apollinopolis Magna. The regular head tax in the 1st-2nd century was 16 drachmas a year. Receipt for payment of 8 drachmas (as in this document) or 4 drachmas are proof of the tax having been paid in installments.

Fragment of stela with three figures

The composition appears in an engraved aedicula with a triangular pediment supported on straight columns (the column on the right is preserved). Two figures are depicted on the stela: a woman reclining on a couch and another woman standing before her in a prayerful attitude. The scene may be reconstructed despite considerable damage; presumably there was a third praying figure depicted on the right side.

Stela of Bes from Kom Abu Billou

The stela with deceased shown in prayer in the inly such example among the objects from Kom Abou Billou in Polish collections. The style of a stela, dated to 300 based on the archeological context, is similar, although not exactly the same. Modeling of the details of the figure and of the dress suggests an earlier dating for this object.

Stela of man from Kom Abou Billou

On the preserved bottom half of the relief the deceased is shown reclining on a kline with mattress, supported on two pillows. He is dressed in a chiton and himation, with right leg in profile, left shown frontally. The funerary repast is suggested by two sheaves of corn and an amphora in between, next to which stands a three-legged table with horizontal bar.

Stela of man from Kom Abou Billou

Banquet scene inside an aedicula consisting of two flat columns supporting a semicircular pediment, now lost. A papyrus capital is still visible on the column to the right. The deceased is depicted as a partaker in a banquet, reclining on a couch with two pillows and mattress. Horizontal engraved lines below the representation were intended for an inscription.

Stele of the son of Chairemon and Isidora from Kom Abou Billou

The stele was purchased in Cairo at Eli Albert and Joseph Abermayor by soldiers of the Polish Independent Carpathian Rifle Brigade during WW II. The scene depicts a deceased man lying on a klinai and a female orant standing opposite. The man lying in the bed is dressed in a short-sleeved chiton and a himation rolled at the waist, wrapped around his left hand. In his right, outstretched hand he is holding a kantharos. The woman standing in front of him is depicted en face, she is dressed in the same way as the man and is raising her hands in a gesture of prayer. Under the scene an inscription is placed. The name of the deceased has been preserved only partially; perhaps it was Sosas. The name of his father was Chairemon; the name of Isidora is also there, popular in Egypt in the Roman period. The figures are bound together by family ties.

Hoard from Witów

A treasure of four gold Roman coins from the 5th century AD was found in Witów. It contains three solidi of Emperor Theodosius II (402–450) and one solidus of Emperor Valentinian II (424–455). The first group of coins presents a bust in an armour on the obverse. The name of the emperor is inscribed on the rim — DN THEODOSI-VS P.F. AVG.

“Terra sigillata” vessel

The terra sigillata vessel in the form of a bowl on a foot comes from the cremation tomb accidentally discovered in Lisów (Opatów district). The vessel was imported from a province of the Roman Empire. The form of the vessel is typical of the pottery workshop in Rheinzabern (south-western Germany), the largest centre producing vessels of this type in the northern provinces of the Roman Empire (Germania Superior), operating in 190–220. The vessel was made of clay, sealed in the matrix with a negative decoration, and subsequently baked in a furnace in the pottery workshop of Primitivus I.