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The presented salt shaker is an example of early white-blue pottery, which is decorated with cobalt blue. It is a rare form of Far Eastern porcelain imported to Europe. The object has come a long way to the collection of the Wieliczka Museum, because it was made in China during the Kangxi period (1662–1722).

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The presented salt shaker is an example of early white-blue pottery, which is decorated with cobalt blue. It is a rare form of Far Eastern porcelain imported to Europe. The object has come a long way to the collection of the Wieliczka Museum, because it was made in China during the Kangxi period (1662–1722).
Before porcelain production was developed in Europe (starting in Saxon Meissen), porcelain dishes from exotic countries had been imported since the Middle Ages, and their price often exceeded that of similar silverware. For many years, they served only for decoration, and the fashion for them continued to spread. In the late 17th and early 18th centuries, large quantities of Chinese and Japanese porcelain flowed into European markets. The products were attractive because of their colourful and exotic patterns, and the unknown raw material and the closely-guarded secrets of production stimulated the curiosity of European buyers. On the wave of fashion for Chinese goods, impressive collections were created, sometimes displaying hundreds of vases, plates, and other dishes in the richest, Chinese palace rooms. The Wieliczka salt shaker probably comes from such a larger set, made of white porcelain, presenting painted decorative characteristics of art from around 1700.
The six-sided salt shaker has the form of a pedestal, with a slightly recessed upper surface, which is decorated with painted vessels and a landscape depicting a part of the coast with sailing boats. On the upper, thickened edge of the salt shaker, there are fields with flowers and symbols. On the six side walls, alternate floral motifs and vases with flowers and various objects are visible.
Interestingly, the form of the object is not typical for ceramic products; numerous, simple planes and sharp angles are rather evidence of similarity to metal salt shakers, with a shallow, small container for salt, which were popular in Europe. This intentional reference can be explained by the production of an object in China, which was ready for its European recipient.

Elaborated by Klementyna Ochniak-Dudek (Kraków Salt Works Museum in Wieliczka), © all rights reserved

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The collection of salt shakers from Wieliczka

The Museum of Żupy Krakowskie has been continuously extending its collection of salt shakers from different eras and continents; currently, it has several hundred items. On our website, we present six of them, distinguished by their intricate decorations, as well as the place and time of their creation...

 

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The Museum of Żupy Krakowskie has been continuously extending its collection of salt shakers from different eras and continents; currently, it has several hundred items. On our website, we present six of them, distinguished by their intricate decorations, as well as the place and time of their creation:

The impressive, richly decorated salt pots, in the past belonged to the most important household utensils. They testified to the wealth of the owners. The place where the salt shaker was placed on the table during opulent feasts was strictly regulated by court ceremony. The importance and high rank of this representative container was evidenced by its impressive appearance, remaining in disproportion to the small amount of salt which it contained. Salt shakers took on yet more new shapes in the Gothic era: an hourglass, a wide container on a foot, a cylindrical casket and—at the end of the 16th century—a bell. A well-known salt shaker—made by B. Cellini on the orders of the French king Francis—had all features of sculpture. Apart from such precious models, salt shakers used every day, which prevailed at the beginning of the 17th century, became more conspicuous.


Elaborated by Kraków Salt Works Museum in Wieliczka, Editorial Team of Malopolska's Virtual Museums, © all rights reserved

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“White gold” – concerning the beginnings of European porcelain

Chinese and Japanese porcelain was once an extremely valuable and desirable product in Europe, which was already being imported in the Middle Ages. It was called “white gold”, because it commanded value comparable to this precious metal and was often used as its substitute (e.g. as a gift). At that time, porcelain was viewed as a synonym of luxury and its possession testified to the splendour of the house; only the wealthiest people — mainly royalty — could afford it. In the modern era — in connection with the fashion for Orientalism — porcelain gained such great popularity, that a great effort was made to discover how it was manufactured: one of the most guarded secrets of the East.

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Chinese and Japanese porcelain was once an extremely valuable and desirable product in Europe, which was already being imported in the Middle Ages. It was called “white gold”, because it commanded value comparable to this precious metal and was often used as its substitute (e.g. as a gift). At that time, porcelain was viewed as a synonym of luxury and its possession testified to the splendour of the house; only the wealthiest people — mainly royalty — could afford it.
Porcelain is the finest type of ceramics. The formula of its manufacture was developed in China as early as the 7th century. In the modern era — in connection with the fashion for Orientalism — porcelain gained such great popularity, that a great effort was made to discover how it was manufactured: one of the most guarded secrets of the East. Initially, half-measures were used to obtain faience: a type of ceramics differing from the mineral composition of porcelain clay, but bearing the closest resemblance to it after firing. Through the use of a similar form, and characteristic cobalt under-glaze decorations on a white background, producers attempted to give it the appearance of original Chinese porcelain. The 2nd half of the 17th and the 1st half of the 18th centuries was the period in which the greatest number of porcelain imitations were manufactured in Europe. 
The first product of this kind was the so-called Medici porcelain, which was made in Florence in the 16th century. However, these vessels had an original form and resembled Chinese porcelain only in its colour scheme. Around 1600, in the French city of Nevers, the production of faience in the Italian tradition began, which — due to the then contemporary fashion trends — adopted the Chinese cobalt-white colour palette and stylistics in the middle of the 17th century. The history of the famous Delft faience — also produced since the beginning of the 17th century — was similar. At the beginning of the factory’s operation, a characteristic collection of decorative motifs was developed, depicting landscapes or genre scenes, most often cobalt patterns on a white background (patterns of Dutch ceramics recognizable to the present day). In line with the increasing fashion for Chinese products in the 2nd half of the century, Delft faience stared to resemble such products through the shape of its vessels and decorations, modelled on those from the Far East, although still retaining local features. In the following decades, the trend for this type of product resulted in the establishment of other production facilities of porcelain imitations, which vied with one another in the field of ideas for production techniques and designs of crockery.
The real breakthrough was the invention of a technique for making European porcelain by Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus in 1708. Von Tschirnhaus’s research was continued by his collaborator, Johann Friedrich Böttger (an alchemist who, before embarking on the research into the production of the “white gold”, had conducted experiments on transmutating other metals into gold). In 1710, under Böttger’s supervision, porcelain production commenced in the first European factory founded by Augustus II the Strong — Kursächsische Manufaktur — at the Albrechtsburg castle in Meissen. Saxon (or Meissen) porcelain was met with great appreciation from the very beginning and has been since produced almost continuously to the present day.

See also:
Chinese porcelain salt shaker
“Hydria” apothecary vase
Teapot with lid
Porcelain vase with a wooden base

Elaborated by Paulina Kluz (Editorial team of Małopolska’s Virtual Museums),
Licencja Creative Commons

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Poland License.

Bibliography:
Ludwig Danckwert, Leksykon porcelany europejskiej, tłum. Agata Bobkiewicz, Barbara Bukowska, Roman Warszewski, Gdańsk 2008;
Słownik terminologiczny sztuk pięknych, red. Krystyna Kubalska-Sulkiewicz, Warszawa 1996.

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Chinese porcelain salt shaker

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