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- Date of production 19th century
- Place of creation Wieliczka, Poland
- Dimensions height: 1 m, length: 1.4 m, width: 0.3 m
- ID no. MŻKW II/429
- Object copyright Kraków Salt Works Museum in Wieliczka
- Digital images copyright public domain
- Digitalisation RDW MIC, Małopolska’s Virtual Museums project
Mine carts, called Hungarian dogs, appeared in the Wieliczka excavations at the end of the 18th century, and they were put into operation by the Austrian partition authorities, to whom the mine belonged at that time. The rather funny name of these transport devices is most likely related to the sounds made by their wheels while moving.more
Mine carts, called Hungarian dogs, appeared in the Wieliczka excavations at the end of the 18th century, and they were put into operation by the Austrian partition authorities, to whom the mine belonged at that time. The rather funny name of these transport devices is most likely related to the sounds made by their wheels while moving. In order to facilitate the transport of cargo (salt output), beech board bases were applied and laid on the bottom (spąg).
There were several types of carts or “dogs”:
—a dog for transporting salt rocks, barrels with salt, and large salt fragments, built entirely of wood. So far, only one such cart has been found in the Wieliczka mine, most probably one of the 18th century prototypes. It consists of a frame, made of beams, reinforced from the bottom by a longitudinally thicker beam with a quadrangular cross-section; and this beam was placed from below to the so-called fish tail, creating two transverse strips. At their ends, wooden full wheels were embedded – smaller ones at the front, larger ones at the back – secured with wedges against sliding. In the upper part of the chassis, from the front, limiters are placed to support the load during transport. At the rear of the cart, a handle for pushing is attached. Measurements: length – 144 cm, width – 44 cm, diameter of the wheels – 11 and 21 cm, height of the handle – 71 cm.
— a dog for transporting salt rocks, barrels and larger salt fragments, made of wood and iron, with cast wheels. Its main element is a platform, to which, from the bottom – with bolts or studs – a profiled beam is attached, which is thicker in its middle part. In the middle of its length, full wheels with conical hubs have been placed, mounted on an iron shaft. In the front part, two similar wheels with a smaller diameter were embedded. On the front of the platform, a load holding limiter and an iron hook for attaching the rope are to be found (a similar hook is at the back). Measurements: length – 148 cm, width – 33 cm, diameter of the wheels – 11 and 21 cm, height of the handle – 97 cm.
— box dog (Hungarian), used for transporting fine salt. The design does not differ from the previous model. A load box made of planks was mounted on the shortened chassis beam, which was also reinforced with metal fittings. Measurements: length – over 100 cm, width – approx. 40 cm, height – approx. 50 cm, diameter of the wheels – 11 and 21 cm, load capacity of the box –160–300 kg.
— mineshaft dog, adapted for vertical transport. This is a cart with a bigger load capacity than a mineshaft dog, used to transport gangue; the vertical movement of the cart was possible because of the ropes attached to special iron handles (hooks) on the sides of the box. Structurally, these carts did not differ from the others, except for the measurements of the loading part.
The presented cart – a Hungarian “dog” – is made of wood and iron. The basic structural part is a thick board forming an elongated platform, to which a beam is fastened from the bottom, along the central part. In the middle of the beam’s length and to its end, iron axes with wheels (middle ones with a larger diameter) were fastened. In the front part of the cart, a wooden protrusion – a protector – was nailed to the platform to prevent slipping during transport. The end of the platform is ferruled with tape. The upper edges of the platform are reinforced with slats (one-sided loss). In the rear part of the trolley, there is a trapezoidal handle, made of three bars (one of the transverse is lost) and widening upwards, while leaning diagonally backwards.
Elaborated by Kraków Salt Works Museum in Wieliczka, © all rights reserved