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The tulle shawl, richly decorated with white, hand-made embroidery, is a characteristic element of women's costumes from Podgórze Gorlickie (the Gorlice Foothills).

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The tulle shawl, richly decorated with white, hand-made embroidery, is a characteristic element of women's costumes from Podgórze Gorlickie (the Gorlice Foothills).
When were such shawls used? On holidays and during other—not necessarily church—ceremonies.  The cap was made of a large, muslin or tulle scarf,  decorated with embroidery on the sides. The dominant motif of such embroidery was rich plant ornamentation, mostly floral. The headscarfs were always white.
When the field work was finished, and autumn and winter evenings were becoming long, women met and embroidered, among others, such bonnets. It was a great way to strengthen ties within the rural community. While at work, myths and legends were told and songs were sung. Thanks to this, traditions developed over centuries, that could be passed on to younger generations and without losing any of their vitality. Embroidering coifs became an indirect way of cultivating the folklore tradition. During such meetings, older women  had an opportunity to share their knowledge and life experience with the younger ones. The rhythm of the seasons, the cyclical nature of field work and liturgical rituals created the customs of the villagers. Embroidered headscarves were an inseparable addition to the festive outfit of a married woman. Unmarried women were not allowed to wear them. The rich ornamentation of headscarves and the variety of floral patterns testified to the unprecedented imagination and sophisticated technique of their manufacture.

Elaborated by Katarzyna Liana (The Ignacy Łukasiewicz Regional Museum of Polish Tourism and Sightseeing Society in Gorlice), © all rights reserved

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Clothes from the Gorlice region

The elements of clothes shown in the Open Air Ethnographic Museum of the Pogórze Region in Szymbark come from the western part of the region, near Gorlice. For ages the region has been famous for manufacturing flax linen and cloth for trading purposes. They were produced by special weavers...

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The elements of clothes shown in the Open Air Ethnographic Museum of the Pogórze Region in Szymbark come from the western part of the region, near Gorlice. For ages the region has been famous for manufacturing flax linen and cloth for trading purposes. They were produced by special weavers. Initially, these materials were used to make clothes for both holidays and common days. In the late 19th century, female outfits began to change as easily accessible factory-made materials started to be implemented. At the turn of the 19th and early 20th centuries, this type of clothing ceased to be common because of the changes in the living conditions of countryside inhabitants related to the development of the oil industry and labour migration.
The displayed elements of folk outfits from the Gorlice region (a wedding scarf and a folk apron) were sewn from factory-made materials and manually embroidered by women from the region.

Elaborated by Anna Niemczyńska-Szurek (The Karwacjan and Gładysz Family Manors Museum), © all rights reserved

See also:
Apron of Pogórze region
Wedding scarf from Pogórze
Budrysówka scarf

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How to tie a wedding scarf?

Subtle knots exposing the beautiful embroidered starched material... Thanks to this the scarf becomes a real decoration for the head... However, would everyone be able to tie such a scarf nowadays? The thing that was very easy for our great-grandmothers could be very problematic these days...

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Subtle knots exposing the beautiful embroidered starched material... Thanks to this the scarf becomes a real decoration for the head... However, would everyone be able to tie such a scarf nowadays? The thing that was very easy for our great-grandmothers could be very problematic these days.
For those who like tradition and for all of those eager to learn new skills we have prepared a short guideline in co-operation with the employees of the Ethnographic Museum in Kraków.
Similar scarves were typical for folk costumes of the Kraków region in the 19th century. They were worn by both wedded women and maidens, who additionally decorated their scarves with flowers that were forbidden for wedded women. Maidens could be additionally identified by the carefully made plaits protruding from under the scarf.

You are all invited to watch and to try and tie a traditional wedding scarf!

Elaborated by Anna Berestecka (Editorial team of Małopolska’s Virtual Museums),
Licencja Creative Commons

 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Poland License.

See also:
Wedding scarf for Kraków costume

Coif scarf from the region of Gorlice

Wedding scarf from Raciborowice

Wedding scarf

Wedding scarf from Pogórze

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Coif scarf from the region of Gorlice

Pictures

Audio

Chusta czepcowa z Pogórza Gorlickiego Tells: Krystyna Reinfuss-Janusz
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Chusta czepcowa z Pogórza Gorlickiego [audiodeskrypcja] Tells: Fundacja na Rzecz Rozwoju Audiodeskrypcji KATARYNKA
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