List of all exhibits. Click on one of them to go to the exhibit page. The topics allow exhibits to be selected by their concept categories. On the right, you can choose the settings of the list view.
The list below shows links between exhibits in a non-standard way. The points denote the exhibits and the connecting lines are connections between them, according to the selected categories.
Enter the end dates in the windows in order to set the period you are interested in on the timeline.
- Date of production 1792
- Place of creation Warsaw, Poland
- Dimensions height: the cross: 33.5 mm, length: sash length: 142 mm, width: the cross: 33.5 mm; sash width: 23.5 mm
- ID no. Inv. no. MNK-V-2029
- Branch Main Building
- Gallery Arms and Uniforms in Poland
- Acquired date donated by Tytus Eustachy Kołyszko, son of Benedykt in 1890
- Object copyright The National Museum in Kraków
- Digital images copyright public domain
- Digitalisation RDW MIC, Małopolska's Virtual Museums project
One of a few preserved specimens from 1792. An even-armed cross with slightly arched arm edges. On the obverse the arms are covered with black enamel with a golden rim left on the edges. The arms feature the order’s motto of VIR/ TUTI/ MILI/ TARI. At the intersection of the cross’s arms there is a round central shield covered with green-enamelled laurel leaves on the rim. In the central field there is an enamelled image of a white eagle with a golden crown, with a sceptre in its beak and an orb in its claws.more
One of a few preserved specimens from 1792. An even-armed cross with slightly arched arm edges. On the obverse the arms are covered with black enamel with a golden rim left on the edges. The arms feature the order’s motto of VIR/ TUTI/ MILI/ TARI. At the intersection of the cross’s arms there is a round central shield covered with green-enamelled laurel leaves on the rim. In the central field there is an enamelled image of a white eagle with a golden crown, with a sceptre in its beak and an orb in its claws. On the reverse the arm edges are chamfered and feature the following letters: S/ A/ R/ P, the abbreviation for the royal title of “Stanislaus Augustus Rex Poloniae.” In the central shield there is a green enamelled laurel wreath. In the central field there is the navy-blue-enamelled Lithuanian Pagonia (Pogoń) coat of arms with the date “1792” filled with black enamel. At the top arm there is an eye with a sky-blue moire ribbon with two vertical black zones closer to the edge.
The cross was made upon the order of Benedykt Kołyszko, most likely in Warsaw, after he received the patent award. Initially, Kołyszko was supposed to receive the Golden Cross of Virtuti Militari, one of the 65 minted crosses of the newly-established military order awarded at that time by Stanislaus Augustus.
The patent awards issued by the royal chancellery reached the awarded with some delay. Apart from the list of merits they included a detailed description of what the decoration should look like. There is reference to a cross that is “[...] darkly gilded, with the «Virtuti Militari» inscription and the White Eagle in the middle on a gold, non-gilded background surrounded by a green laurel on one side; the other side is golden, non-gilded with the darkly gilded Lithuanian Pagonia in the middle, also surrounded with the green laurel and the letters of S.A.R.P.” On the basis of this description, Warsaw jewellers produced the decorations in a form that has been valid until the present day.
Benedykt Kołyszko (1749 or 1754—1834) entered military service in the National Cavalry in 1778, and in 1784 he was granted the standard-bearer rank. He distinguished himself during the 1792 war, and was promoted to the rank of major in the 8th National Cavalry Brigade. At that time (on 21 July 1792) he was awarded for his merits and courage with the displayed Cross of Virtuti Militari. He marked his presence during the defence of Warsaw at the Kościuszko Insurrection and was promoted to the rank of general major. Later he emigrated. After the outbreak of the November Uprising, the aged general organised a mounted unit of the Podole nobility. After several lost skirmishes, Kołyszko and his unit crossed the Austrian border.
Elaborated by Piotr Wilkosz (The National Museum in Kraków), © all rights reserved