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Michałowski created a model (probably made of plaster) for this figurine between 1832 and 1835 in Paris while being part of the circle of the Nicolas-Toussaint Charlet's studio, at that time — as the painter's daughter will later put it — “a real hotbed of Bonapartism.” Drawing on the iconography of heroic leaders, he represented Napoleon on a galloping horse, his hand outstretched to point the direction of an attack; that is in almost the same way as in his other representations of the emperor of that time: the oil painting, Napoleon on Horseback Giving Orders (the National Museum in Wrocław) and a similar watercolour painting (National Museum in Kraków).

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Michałowski created a model (probably made of plaster) for this figurine between 1832 and 1835 in Paris while being part of the circle of the Nicolas-Toussaint Charlet's studio, at that time — as the painter's daughter will later put it — “a real hotbed of Bonapartism.” Drawing on the iconography of heroic leaders, he represented Napoleon on a galloping horse, his hand outstretched to point the direction of an attack; that is in almost the same way as in his other representations of the emperor of that time: the oil painting, Napoleon on Horseback Giving Orders (the National Museum in Wrocław) and a similar watercolour painting (National Museum in Kraków).
As found out by an art historian, Jan K. Ostrowski, who had researched the history of the figurine, the painter gave the original to his father-in-law, Antoni Ostrowski, an exile in France. The years of the July Monarchy favoured the cult of Napoleon, and upon setting about delivering the emperor's mausoleum in connection with the planned shipping of his body from Saint Helena Island to Paris, it was proposed to erect a monument in the heart of the Louvre to commemorate Napoleon. Antoni Ostrowski believed that the monument could be modelled after the figurine made by Michałowski. To this end, in 1841, he commissioned a Paris moulder, Debraux d'Anglure, to produce a cast of it and commenced efforts to obtain a contract from the French government. The plan failed. The monumental statue of Napoleon for the Louvre, developed at the same time by an Italian sculptor, Carlo Marochetti, for a few years, was not completed either. Julia Michałowska, the painter's wife, tried to set this case in motion again in 1846, unsuccessfully again. Michałowski himself critically commented on the whole thing: “Why did they not ask for my opinion before giving the work I have never been satisfied with to be assessed by the public?” he wrote.
The figurine arrived at the National Museum in Kraków in 1974 as a gift from Andrzej Ciechanowiecki from London, who had bought it in an antique shop in Paris. Earlier, it had been part of a private collection somewhere near Tours. The detachable parts, namely the reins and the sword, have not been preserved. Also, copies of the figurine are kept in state and in private collections.

Elaborated by Anna Zeńczak (The National Museum in Kraków), © all rights reserved

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Difficulties with dating Piotr Michałowski's works

Why are there difficulties with dating Piotr Michałowski’s works?
As a wealthy person, the artist did not put his works on sale. Consequently, he did not put signatures or dates on his works, making it difficult to ascertain the chronology of their production.

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Why are there difficulties with dating Piotr Michałowski’s works?
As a wealthy person, the artist did not put his works on sale. Consequently, he did not put signatures or dates on his works, making it difficult to ascertain the chronology of their production.
Experts try to handle these difficulties by examining not only the stylistic aspect of his works but also the material ones, that is, canvas stretchers, canvases, paper and cardboard supports, grounds, and pigments used by Michałowski. Then they try to match the materials used by the artist to those available at the place he stayed in at a given point.
During his Paris period (1832–1835), for instance, his canvasses had one distinguishing feature in common: they were thin and were not woven too tightly, yet with evenly spun threads; this facilitates matching them to this stage of the artist’s oeuvre.

Elaborated by Editorial team of Małopolska’s Virtual Museums,
Licencja Creative Commons

 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Poland License.

See also:
Statuette “Napoleon on a Horse” by Piotr Michałowski
Painting “Jews” by Piotr Michałowski

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Who deserved an equestrian portrait?

The equestrian portrait, from the beginning of its existence, was supposed to emphasise the military virtues of the individual depicted and was reserved for victorious leaders. Alexander the Great was already shown as an equestrian figure, and Hellenic rulers followed his example by having statues depicting them on horseback erected. This form of commemoration was adopted from Greeks by Romans, and their monument of Emperor Marcus Aurelius became a model for all medieval and renaissance representations of the mounted victor. It is worth noting that this statue — despite being made of valuable bronze — was preserved due to the fact that, for a long time, it was thought not to be the image of a pagan emperor-philosopher, but rather the portrait of Constantine the Great, considered a Christian.

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The equestrian portrait, from the beginning of its existence, was supposed to emphasise the military virtues of the individual depicted and was reserved for victorious leaders. Alexander the Great was already shown as an equestrian figure, and Hellenic rulers followed his example by having statues depicting them on horseback erected. This form of commemoration was adopted from Greeks by Romans, and their monument of Emperor Marcus Aurelius became a model for all medieval and renaissance representations of the mounted victor. It is worth noting that this statue — despite being made of valuable bronze — was preserved due to the fact that, for a long time, it was thought not to be the image of a pagan emperor-philosopher, but rather the portrait of Constantine the Great, considered a Christian.

The revival of the monumental equestrian statue was brought about by the Renaissance (it was then that famous monuments, such as the Gattamelata in Padua and the statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni in Venice, were created), but it reached its heyday between the 16th and the 18th centuries. In addition to the very expensive monumental bronze statues, small statuettes, coloured paintings and engravings appeared, whose propagandistic meaning as the first mass medium can hardly be overstated. At the same time, depictions of members of the royal families on horseback began to appear.

Polish kings also had equestrian portraits made for them. Magnates, and most often — understandably — victorious hetmans, followed the example of their rulers. However, the equestrian portrait was not always created in honour of individuals who triumphed duringwar. It sometimes happened that an equestrian depiction was the effect of its founder’s megalomania. Hieronim Florian Radziwiłł — a cruel and foolish man, whose only military success was the bloody suppression of a peasants’ revolt — intended to have a mounted statue of himself situated at the marketplace in Biała Podlaska, rebuilt especially for this purpose. The project assumed an impressive outcome, but, then again, Radziwiłł’s ambitions were nothing to scoff at either: he was convinced that he would become the king, having been told so by a Gypsy fortune teller...

The targets of the equestrian portrait were the broad masses of noblemen, even though it was mostly associated with the elite. Even a moderately wealthy nobleman, although, in the light of the law, equal to the magnates, could not afford even the cheapest and humblest equestrian image of his person. Funding such a portrait would be considered a ridiculous attempt to compare oneself to senators and hetmans. Because, in the end, quod licet Iovi, non licet bovi, or, as some prefer, “Gods may do what cattle may not”.

The place, where even the king walks on foot

Jan Długosz—describing the life and customs of King Władysław Jagiełło — stated that “depending on the circumstances, sometimes it was difficult to approach him, at other times, it was easy”. He was most accessible and accommodating to petitioners while sitting on the toilet, when he “went from his bed to a secluded place and defecated for a long time there, handling many affairs. And, apparently, he was never more accessible and gentler. And the knights strove to find such moments to make it easier for them to get what they had asked for”.

Sigismund I the Old, had a very different approach towards these matters and, as stated by Marcin Kromer, “throughout his life he was characterized by a great, almost virgin-like shyness. He hated it when anyone apart from those who served him in the inner-bedroom saw him naked or taking care of his natural needs”.

See:
Painting “Equestrian portrait of Prince Władysław Sigismund Vasa”
Sculpture of Augustus III
Statuette “Napoleon on a Horse” by Piotr Michałowski
Ruben’s innovations

Elaborated by Adam Spodaryk (Editorial team of Małopolska’s Virtual Museums), 
Licencja Creative Commons

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Poland.

Bibliography:
Mieczysław Morka, Polski nowożytny portret konny i jego europejska geneza, Warszawa 1986.

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Ruben’s innovations

Peter Paul Rubens developed a new type of equestrian portrait. The system that had been used up until then, in the Titian tradition (Horse portrait of Charles V), depicted a rider on a horse in profile. Rubens changed this, depicting the figure and mount slightly turned en trois quarts in a short perspective, so that they seemed to be heading directly towards the viewer.

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Peter Paul Rubens developed a new type of equestrian portrait. The system that had been used up until then, in the Titian tradition (Horse portrait of Charles V), depicted a rider on a horse in profile.

Equestrian portrait of Zygmunt III, Peter Paul Rubens workshop, ca. 1619, source: Wikipedia, Public domain

Rubens changed this, depicting the figure and mount slightly turned en trois quarts in a short perspective, so that they seemed to be heading directly towards the viewer. The whole composition changed: the horse is shown in an elegant, free walk, not as before in a gallop, while the rider is presented from the front, thanks to which his face is far more visible, and the silhouette adopts a dignified and reliable look, with the chest stuck out and hand resting on a baton.
The first picture of this type was the equestrian portrait of Archduke Albert, known from Jan Brueghel’s Cabinet of curiosities  Allegory of Sight. This type has become a role model in Rubens workshop, used in paintings such as Equestrian portrait of Sigismund III Vasa and Equestrian portrait of Prince Lerma. These were often copied by artists from his circle, as in the presented painting, Equestrian portrait of Prince Sigismund Vasa, from the collection of Wawel Royal Castle – State Art Collection.

See also:

Statuette “Napoleon on a Horse” by Piotr Michałowski
Sculpture of Augustus III

Who deserved equestrian portrait?

 

 

Elaborated by Paulina Kluz (Editorial Team of Małopolskas Virtual Museums),
Licencja Creative Commons

 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Poland License.

Bibliography:
Ryszard Szmydki, Artystyczno-dyplomatyczne kontakty Zygmunta III Wazy z Niderlandami Południowymi, Lublin 2008.


 

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Statuette “Napoleon on a Horse” by Piotr Michałowski

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