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Quartz is a mineral belonging to the silicate group, mainly made of silicon dioxide. It is one of the most abundant rock-forming minerals present in the Earth’s crust. It is a brittle and transparent mineral. It can develop numerous colour variants, depending on its composition. It can be colourless, as well. Such quartz is called rock crystal.

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Quartz is a mineral belonging to the silicate group, mainly made of silicon dioxide. It is one of the most abundant rock-forming minerals present in the Earth’s crust.
Its name derives from the old German word kwarr (quarz), meaning grind, used by German miners, or from the Slavonic word kwadry, meaning hard (kwarda - kwarzec).
It usually forms in crystals in the shape of a prism with a six-sided cross section, ending with rhombohedral sides (each side of such a rhombohedron is called a rhomb). Well formed crystals most often can be found in rock crevices, caverns or other empty spaces where druses develop. Apart from its crystalline structure, quartz can develop grainy and cryptocrystalline variants, as well as crusts.
It is a brittle and transparent mineral. It can develop numerous colour variants, depending on its composition. It can be colourless, as well. Such quartz is called rock crystal.
Ferruginous quartz is a variant of quartz which is rich in iron oxides and hydroxides. It can be frequently found in compact aggregates, usually in deposits of iron ore.

Elaborated by Barbara Kietlińska-Michalik (The Geological Museum of the Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences), editorial team of Małopolska’s Virtual Museums, © all rights reserved

Bibliography:
Jerzy Żaba, Ilustrowana Encyklopedia Skał i Minerałów, Katowice 2010.

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Ferruginous quartz

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