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Prezentowana neobarokowa waga należy do rodzaju wag szalkowych. Od wieków waga była podstawowym narzędziem pracy w aptece, związana z przyrządzaniem i dawkowaniem leków. Ujednolicenie miar aptekarskich formalnie nastąpiło w 1555 roku, kiedy to Rada Municypalna Norymbergii ogłosiła...

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Prezentowana neobarokowa waga należy do rodzaju wag szalkowych. Od wieków waga była podstawowym narzędziem pracy w aptece, związana z przyrządzaniem i dawkowaniem leków. Ujednolicenie miar aptekarskich formalnie nastąpiło w 1555 roku, kiedy to Rada Municypalna Norymbergii ogłosiła zarządzenie w sprawie unifikacji miar masy. Został opracowany nowy system miar, zwany systemem norymberskim. Podstawową jednostką miary norymberskiego systemu wagowego była uncja, dzieląca się na funty, drachmy, skrupuły i grany. System — zwany dziesiętnym — wprowadzony w 1791 roku we Francji, do aptek na terenie państwa polskiego dotarł w II poł. XIX wieku (w zależności od zaboru: w Prusach od 1872 roku, w Monarchii Austro-Węgierskiej od 1876, a w Rosji od 1899). Kształt najmniejszych odważników poniżej 1 grama opracował farmaceuta Marian Zahradnik, łącząc ich kształt z nominałem. Każda blaszka miała ponadto dodatkową wypustkę, która ułatwiała uchwycenie go pincetą. Odważniki te zostały wprowadzone do powszechnego użycia w aptekach Monarchii Austro-Węgierskiej 2 lutego 1893 roku. Niedługo potem przyjęły się w Europie oraz w krajach zamorskich.

Opracowanie: Muzeum Farmacji Collegium Medicum UJ w Krakowie, © wszystkie prawa zastrzeżone

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Miss Pharmacist and pharmacy rooms at manor courts

All the medications that nowadays fill the surface of the drawer, formerly occupied an entire room. At the manors, these “first aid kits” contained natural ingredients, spices, liqueurs, vodkas, home-made brews and preserves.

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All the medications that nowadays fill the surface of the drawer, formerly occupied an entire room. At the manors, these “first aid kits” contained natural ingredients, spices, liqueurs, vodkas, home-made brews and preserves. Zygmunt Gloger, analysing the contents of the pharmacy rooms in the Old Polish Encyclopaedia, wrote:
“What – there was no rural pharmacy: the fat of various animals as medicines, dry reptiles, several dozen species of dried herbs, starting from linden flower, chamomile and mint, and ending with various dried fruits and rootlets. We did not forget about the March water from melted snow, which was thought to maintain a beautiful complexion for the fairer sex, and about rose water, which was sprinkled on the floor to lend rooms a pleasant aroma. Water for washing the face was also prepared from cucumbers. Only homemade vinegars were used: raspberry, relish, spinach, currant, barberry etc.”.
A well-stocked first-aid kit was particularly important in places far from the town, where the medic could not reach quickly enough.
Completing and supplementing its content was the housekeeper’s duty. Often, in the manors, the first aid kit was prepared by Mrs. Pharmacist – a poor relative who had no family of her own (this term even became a synonym for an old maid). As Glogger wrote:
“She had everything under her key, she kept everything and watched over the supply with everything, sometimes walking alone with the village girls to collect herbs”.
She was the one who gave first aid in emergency situations not only to the residents of the manor, but also to the surrounding villages.
The atmosphere of an old pharmacy, not only domestic ones, can be enjoyed while visiting the Museum of Pharmacy in Kraków, where an old herb dryer was restored in the attic.

We can find out how varied first-aid kits once were by browsing “the Tibetan Pharmacy” – a manuscript and a set of medicines.

Elaborated by: Editorial team of Malopolskas Virtual Museums,
Licencja Creative Commons

 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Poland License.

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