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Exhibits given to the Ethnographic Museum in Kraków by Leopold Węgrzynowicz include sculptures, paintings on glass, costumes, archival records, items related to rites... However, the Museum owes much more to Węgrzynowicz than shown by inventory sheets, which he even co-created in the first years of the Ethnographic Museum's operation, helping to catalogue and inventorise the Museum's exhibits.

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Exhibits given to the Ethnographic Museum in Kraków by Leopold Węgrzynowicz include sculptures, paintings on glass, costumes, archival records, items related to rites... However, the Museum owes much more to Węgrzynowicz than shown by inventory sheets, which he even co-created in the first years of the Ethnographic Museum's operation, helping to catalogue and inventorise the Museum's exhibits.
A graduate from the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics of the Jagiellonian University, a member of the Polish Ethnic Studies Society and an enthusiast of photography, Węgrzynowicz was a secondary school teacher with a true teaching passion who worked with the Museum. Not only did he teach science and geography (clandestine teaching during the war), but he was also an editor of the Orli Lot [Eagle’s Flight] monthly issued by the Tourist School Youth Society. He used the magazine to encourage young readers to collect ethnographic materials during their trips. He also provided some space in the magazine to Seweryn Udziela, who published questionnaire forms to facilitate the work of amateur collectors, giving prizes to recognise the best ethnographic collections. In subsequent years, the Ethnographic Museum in Kraków obtained exhibits given by young inventors inspired with the campaign.

Elaborated by the Seweryn Udziela Ethnographic Museum in Kraków, © all rights reserved

Read more on what trade in the Main Market Square in Kraków looked like

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Palm Sunday customs

The custom of blessing Easter palms dates back to the Middle Ages. Palms were a symbol of resurrection, they played an important role, ensuring good crops, a long life, and even... a good death. Sticking palm branches into the roof of a house or farm buildings guaranteed protection from lightning strikes or fire...

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The custom of blessing Easter palms dates back to the Middle Ages. Palms were a symbol of resurrection, they played an important role, ensuring good crops, a long life, and even... a good death. Sticking palm branches into the roof of a house or farm buildings guaranteed protection from lightning strikes or fire.
Traditional palms were made of willow twigs with catkins – in unfavourable weather conditions, if the spring did not come quickly, they were picked earlier and put into water, so that the buds would shoot. The twigs of currants or raspberries, which were picked on Ash Wednesday and kept in water until Palm Sunday, were treated similarly.
The catkins also played an important role in a series of rituals that had to be performed using a palm tree. To protect against a sore throat in the coming year, it was necessary to eat a catkin...
However, this is not the end – according to the custom, fragments of a palm tree had to be distributed all over the house. Some of the twigs were used to make crosses, which were stuck into the ground at the four corners of a field. This action was to effectively deter rodents and ensure good crops.
The vast array of uses offered by the palm tree meant that affluent residents who kept considerable riches or had become wealthy quickly had to fulfil their duty and get palms which, with every passing year, were increasingly bigger. Over time, their size became an indicator of a person’s social position. Although the customs of exposing the cattle to the fumes of incense or protecting the field using fragments of palms have disappeared, the practice of competing against other people in terms of the size of their palms is still alive and well. Competitions are organized in the spirit of this rivalry, among which the one in Lipnica Wielka is the best known.

Elaborated by Editorial team of Małopolskas Virtual Museums,
Licencja Creative Commons

 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Poland License.

See:

Photograph “Selling palms to be consecrated at St. Mary’s Church in Kraków” by Leopold Węgrzynowicz
Photograph “Portrait of two boys” by Ignacy Krieger
Sculpture “Jesus Christ Sitting on the Palm Sunday Donkey”

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Trading in the Main Market Square in Kraków

The Main Market Square once played a role of a market place with 400 stalls (merchants also put their merchandise in baskets on the pavement). Since the beginning of the 14th century and moving onto the 18th century, each part of the square was reserved for salesmen offering various kinds of merchandise...

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A model of Main Market Square in Kraków, source: wikipedia.orgCC-BY 3.0 PL

The Main Market Square once played a role of a market place with 400 stalls (merchants also put their merchandise in baskets on the pavement). Since the beginning of the 14th century and moving onto the 18th century, each part of the square was reserved for salesmen offering various kinds of merchandise; there was a coal fair, a lead fair, a Jewish fair, a fish fair, a bread fair, a cooperage fair and a crayfish fair.
Those trading were subject to certain rules: products were sold exclusively to ordinary customers until a flag fluttered on the mast of the Main Market Square (about 11 am), and then products were sold to merchants too. Thanks to this, merchants could not impact prices and could not buy out the most sought-after products. It was also forbidden to sell merchandise on the way to the Market Square. Jews could not buy until noon. Those who did not obey those guidelines risked a punishment of flogging or being locked in a wicker basket (from which they had to free themselves while watched by an amused crowd).

Elaborated by the Editorial team of Małopolska’s Virtual Museums,
Licencja Creative Commons

 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Poland License.

 


Source: M. Ferenc, Handel, in: Obyczaje w Polsce od Średniowiecza do czasów współczesnych (Customs in Poland from the Middle Ages until the Contemporary Times), edited by A. Chwalba, Warsaw 2005, pp. 190–191.

See the photograph “Selling palms to be consecrated at St. Mary’s Church in Krakow in the collection of Małopolska’s Virtual Museums.

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Photograph “Selling palms to be consecrated at St. Mary’s Church in Kraków” by Leopold Węgrzynowicz

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