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The vessel is part of the rich collection of monuments from Bilcze Złote, from the Werteba Cave. The objects come from excavations, conducted with breaks from 1876 to 1907, by Adam Honory Kirkor, Gotfryd Ossowski, and Włodzimierz Dematrykiewicz. The collections of Prince Leon and Teresa Sapieh were handed over by agreement in 1904 to the Museum of Skills Academy in Kraków.

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The vessel is part of the rich collection of monuments from Bilcze Złote, from the Werteba Cave. The objects come from excavations, conducted with breaks from 1876 to 1907, by Adam Honory Kirkor, Gotfryd Ossowski, and Włodzimierz Dematrykiewicz. The collections of Prince Leon and Teresa Sapieh were handed over by agreement in 1904 to the Museum of Skills Academy in Kraków.
The vessel was made by hand and fired in a pottery kiln at high temperature (over 1,000º C). Before firing, the upper part of the vessel was covered with a painted decoration containing representations of animals, moons, and lines lining up in waves, diagonally and horizontally. The filled and empty circles are the main decorative element. The decoration also used a figure — probably a dog with a raised tail. The decoration was made of red and black paint of organic origin. The colour red was obtained from hematite (an iron compound), and the colour black by adding minerals containing manganese compounds. These were painted on a thin layer of engobe — thinned clay — which does not cover only the lower part of the vessel.
The emergence of the object can be dated to about 3,600 BC. The pot comes from the Cucuteni-Trypole culture, which mainly occupied the area of present-day Ukraine and Romania. In the 4th millennium BC, this was the most developed culture in Europe.

Elaborated by Elżbieta Trela-Kieferling (Archaeological Museum in Kraków), © all rights reserved

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Clay vessel from Bilche Zolote

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