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Św. Kinga, klaryski i Stary Sącz

Głęboko w tle obrazu Jana Matejki Św. Kinga modląca się pośród sądeckich gór, bohatera naszej tygodniowej odsłony, widnieje sylweta klasztoru. Zabudowania te przedstawiają klasztor klarysek w Starym Sączu ufundowany przez Kingę 6 lipca 1280 roku, którego dzieje nierozerwalnie splecione są z historią świętej i Starego Sącza.

Kinga była żoną Bolesława V Wstydliwego, księcia krakowskiego i sandomierskiego. W 1257 roku nadał swojej żonie ziemię sądecką. Konsekwencją tego było założenie przez Kingę osady, która była lokowana w latach 1268-1273. Powstały w ten sposób Sącz stał się głównym centrum administracyjnym Sądecczyzny (nazwa Stary Sącz powstała dopiero za czasów założenia Nowego Sącza w 1292 roku, dla rozróżnienia obu).  

Bolesław zmarł w 1279 roku. Rok później, aktem z 6 lipca Kinga erygowała klasztor klarysek w Sączu, uposażając go w ziemię sądecką (Sącz i 28 wsi). Siostry zostały sprowadzone z klasztoru w Grodzisku, koło Skały. Jednocześnie Kinga ufundowała klasztor franciszkanów w Sączu, aby zakonnicy mogli pełnić dla klarysek posługę Bożą. W 1288 roku pobożna Kinga, jako wdowa, przywdziała habit zakonny i wstąpiła do swojego klasztoru, w którym pozostała aż do śmierci w 1292 roku.

Klasztor mimo swoich burzliwych dziejów, takich jak najazdy Tatarów, ataki zarazy wyludniające miasto, liczne pożary czy późniejsze wojny, trwa nieprzerwanie. Siostry swojego czasu prowadziły również szkołę żeńską, co tak naprawdę uratowało klasztor przed kasatą za czasów panowania Józefa II, choć nie ominęła ich konfiskata majątku.

Pamięć św. Kingi jest u klarysek ciągle żywa. W kościele i klasztorze znajdują się liczne pamiątki po świętej, jak również ślady jej późniejszego kultu. Na obrazie z ołtarza głównego przedstawiającego Trójcę w towarzystwie świętych, znaleźć możemy postać Kingi. We wnętrzu znajduje się również ołtarz pw. św. Kingi z jej obrazem (prawy boczny), na ścianach zaś malowidła przedstawiające sceny z jej życia (podniesienie relikwii św. Stanisława BM; zwycięstwo Bolesława V nad Jadźwingami). Przede wszystkim, przy kościele zlokalizowana jest kaplica św. Kingi z jej relikwiami, odgrodzona od wnętrza kratą. W klasztorze, w miejscu dawnej celi świetej wybudowano kaplicę Matki Bożej Loretańskiej, przed jej wejściem zaś znajduje się słynący cudami krucyfiks, który według legendy przemówił do Kingi. Siostry przechowują również drobne przedmioty w tradycji wiązane z jej życiem codziennym, jak kryształowy kubek, pierścień, medalion, trzon pieczęci z kryształu górskiego czy Psałterzyk z końca XIII wieku.

Sprawdźcie również inne obiekty związane ze św. Kingą u nas na portalu, jak rzeźba solna czy święta wyrzeźbiona przez Józefa Janosa.

Opracowanie: Paulina Kluz (Redakcja WMM),
Licencja Creative Commons

Ten utwór jest dostępny na licencji Creative Commons Uznanie autorstwa 3.0 Polska.

Bibliografia:
Zbigniew Beiersdorf, Bogusław Krasnowolski, Architektura kościoła i klasztoru sióstr klarysek w Starym Sączu, Tarnów 1981.
Klasztor Błogosławionej Kingi w Starym Sączu, opr. Siostry klaryski ze Starego Sącza, Stary Sącz 1996.
Stanisław Rosół, Święta Kinga i jej klasztor i Miasto Stary Sącz. Szkic historyczno-monograficzny na pamiatkę uroczystości 600 letniej rocznicy śmierci Św. Kingi, Nowy Sącz 1892.


The Royal Castle in Niepołomice, called the second Wawel due to its striking resemblance to the Royal Castle in Kraków, is situated near the Niepołomice Forest.
As the former royal seat, it was visited by numerous Polish rulers and notable personages. Today the inside of the castle is the place where culture, art and history are visible.
In the museum, located within the Castle, one can visit the Gallery of 19th-century Polish art on loan from the collection of the National Museum in Kraków, the castle chapel with the paraments from the parish church in Niepołomice, founded by Casimir III the Great, as well as royal documents, rooms with game trophies and an office which belonged to Włodzimierz Puchalski (1909–1979), a Polish scientist and photographer. The collection includes cameras, personal memorabilia as well as over a hundred thousand photo frames and hundreds of nature shots from the Polish territory as well as the North Pole and the South Pole.
When walking along the castle cloister, visitors can also admire some examples of Renaissance architecture.

Elaborated by (The Museum of Niepołomice — the Niepołomice Royal Castle, © all rights reserved

Photograph by Krystyna Konopko (The Museum of Niepołomice — the Niepołomice Royal Castle), © all rights reserved

www.muzeum.niepolomice.com

ul. Zamkowa 2,
32-005 Niepołomice


phone 517 590 420
page museum

Opening hours

May  — September
Monday  — Sunday
10.00 — 18.00
October  — April
Monday  — Sunday
10.00 — 17.00

Ticket Prices

normal 18 PLN reduced 12 PLN family 36 PLN group 12 PLN
Objects

Tube gramophone

The mechanism of the gramophone is placed in a box made of oak wood in a natural colour. The casing is modestly decorated with simple mills, the front wall bears a metal brass secession plate depicting the muse, Erato.

Thurible/censer

Jan Branicki from Ruszcza, district governor of Niepołomice in the years 1585–1611, took particular care of church paraments (vestments, liturgical vessels and all accessories indispensable for celebrating liturgy and cult). He funded chasubles, dalmatics, copes, albs, thuribles or cruets for the church in Niepołomice while his wife Anna was a founder of altar cloths, a veil, a monstrance and a black veil for the altar used during the Great Lent.

The foundation act of King Casimir the Great

At the request of the king, on 12 June 1350, Bodzanta, the Bishop of Kraków, established a parish in the royal village of Niepołomice, thus reorganizing the rural areas adjacent to the parish.

Short stole of a late Renaissance set of vestments

The short stole, like the longer stole from the same set of vestments, was made of red silk satin with a floral pattern brocaded with a gold thread. The end is trimmed with a gold 1.2 cm wide border (galloon) with a geometric pattern. It was decorated with crosses made of gold border at the ends and in the central part. In addition, in the 20th century, a collar made of a piece of lace was sewn in the middle.

Monstrance of the Branicki foundation

The late-Gothic monstrance – silver and gilded – goes in harmony with the style of the church in Niepołomice, whose Gothic character was enriched with Renaissance Branicki’s chapel. The Renaissance motifs – floral and geometric ornaments, figures of saints, putti or coat of arms – look good on the medieval architectural design, decorated with delicate pinnacles and finials. The Branicki family was concerned about the church accessories of the parish church in Niepołomice, that is why church utensils, canonicals and liturgical vessels funded by them.

Long stole of a late Renaissance set of vestments

The stole is part of the liturgical vestment worn during the liturgy of many Christian Churches. This long strip of fabric is placed around the priest’s neck, and its ends fall freely on the chest (in the case of a deacon it is put on diagonally: from the left shoulder to the right side). A stole has been used since the beginning of the Middle Ages as an element included in the set of vestments. It symbolizes the priesthood as God’s yoke.

Gothic chalice

At the beginning of 1657, the lands of southern Poland were invaded by George II Rakoczi’s army of 40 thousand soldiers. The army was supposed to give support to the Swedish headquarters in Kraków. The vicinity of Kraków was doomed by the presence of the new invaders.

Folding TRIX 185 camera

The Trix 185 camera was manufactured at the beginning of the 20th century, during the period 1902–1920, by the German company ICA (Internationale Camera Aktiengesselschaft). It was Włodzimierz Puchalski’s second camera and comes from a period when arduous work with the film and photo camera brought the young artist his first successes.

Folding camera from 19th/20th century

Undoubtedly, Włodzimierz Puchalski’s struggles with photography were initiated by his father, Władysław, and his older brother, Roman. This mahogany folding camera was the first one that Włodzimierz Puchalski used. He got it from his grandfather, Hieronim Sykora, and as a 13-year-old boy he discovered a passion for photography.

Exakta Varex VX Camera

The Exakta Varex VX camera, version 4.3.1, was produced between July 1953 and June 1955 in the Ihagee Kamerawerk plant in Dresden. It is a single-lens reflex camera with a roll-film. 39 thousand units were produced of this version of the model.

Dalmatic of a late Renaissance set of vestments

The dalmatic was worn by the Greeks and Romans as a loose garment extended to the feet worn by lay people with long, wide sleeves and two vertical purple stripes, also known as clavi. In the 2nd century, it was adopted in Western Europe through Byzantium in today’s Dalmatia during the Merovingian and Carolingian period. The dalmatic has been functioning as a liturgical vestment since the 5th century, when it disappeared from lay people’s clothing.

Crystal radio receiver

“The whole country in the range of a detector” — it was a slogan of British radio operators from 1923. Six years later it was implemented by the Polish radio (Polskie Radio SA). Why a detector receiver? Why not a lamp receiver which gives better reception? There were several reasons, two of which were decisive: a much lower price and an independent source of power, which had to be important in a country like Poland where electricity was scarce in the 3rd decade of the 20th century.

Cope of late Renaissance set of vestments

A cope is a long and wide cloak, worn over shoulders and fastened on the chest during the Liturgy of the Hours, the celebration of the sacraments outside the Holy Mass, and the exposition of the Blessed Sacrament. The only ones authorized to wear it are bishops, presbyters, and deacons who received permission from the Holy See.

Chasuble of the Lubomirski Foundation

A white chasuble with an embroidered purple column. The type of embroidery dates this back to around 1600. It was made, among the others, with a gold and silver thread and stitches partially on an underlay of silk fabric with a lancé of gold wire. At the bottom of the vestment, the Lubomirski-Szreniawa coat of arms was gently but legibly incorporated into the chasuble column. The jacquard side fabric with a damask effect is from the 19th century.

Chasuble of a late Renaissance set of vestments

The chasuble evolved from a Roman outer garment, which was a kind of sleeveless coat with only one small hole for the head. The chasuble was worn during all priestly acts. Beginning in the 13th century, the chasuble began to be shortened on the sides, so that it would not constrict hand movement, until the 17th century, when only two sheets of fabric remained: front and back. At the same time, the chasuble came to be decorated with increasingly rich embroidery.

Chalice

Church confraternities, which boasted about having a separate chapel or a side altar, completed the religious life of parishioners. The first confraternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, established in Niepołomice by Cardinal Zbigniew Oleśnicki, worked efficiently for one and a half centuries, but in 1596 a church inspector found it, as he described, in a state of “devotional and interment” activity.

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