In the 19th century, jewellery was worn with folk costumes both by women and men who tied a red ribbon around the shirt collar or fastened the sides of the collar with a collar stud. It was usually made of an alloy of lead, zinc and nickel (bakfon — a material made of imitation silver). The collar stud was adorned with a bead, although few men could afford real coral beads, artificial or even bread beads were used much more often.
Budrysówka (also: burdysówka) scarves were worn by older women. They folded them in half and at the corner and put them over their shoulders to use as a warm covering in the winter. They also wore them on their heads when it rained or snowed. The middle of the scarf consisted of a one-coloured thin cloth.
Boots featuring multiple folds at ankle height, which is a characteristic feature of women’s shoes made in the village of Mników near Kraków at the turn of the 19th and 20th century.
The elements of clothes shown in the Open Air Ethnographic Museum of the Pogórze Region in Szymbark come from the western part of the region, near Gorlice. For ages the region has been famous for manufacturing flax linen and cloth for trading purposes. They were produced by special weavers...
An apron to match the Kraków costume made of two gores of white thin woollen fabric with motifs of green twigs, roses and other pink and red flowers, and blue and pink tiny flowers and buds printed over it.
The sukmana coat, formerly known as an outer garment, was commonly worn on Sundays and festivals by the inhabitants of Kraków villages. It was made of white cloth formerly manufactured, for example, by drapers from Chrzanów (even in the early 20th century, about a dozen families living in Chrzanów were still involved in this craft). Cloth made of spun wool was purchased from merchants from Biała. Depending on the recipient, tailors used a various finish of sukmana coats.
A skirt for a Kraków-style costume sewn from six green woollen fabric gores with pink-crimson-white motifs of single roses and yellow-claret ribbons. By means of delicate green stems, the roses are bunched together with blue flowers – rosettes with five petals separated from each other with small yellow circles.
A hat belonging to the Kraków costume, so-called celender, made from black felt. Its shape resembles a cylinder slightly narrowing towards the top and with a 5 cm wide brim. The hat has a decoration in the form of a black tape of a lining material, which is an imitation of a velvet ribbon, and which has been fastened together at the front with a large brass buckle. On the tape, at the brim of the hat, there is a narrow ribbon embroidered with floral patterns.
An apron of white thin cotton cloth for the festive Kraków costume, full so as to cover the front and sides of a skirt, made from two widths of material, pleated, sewn into a narrow trim with cords formed on it. The apron is richly decorated with hand-made white punch and openwork pull out (toledo) embroidery, with a satin stitch.
A woollen skirt machine-sewn from six gores of fabric, creased in its upper part. A small black tape sewn over the creasing changes into fastening strips at some point. The bottom part of the skirt is lined with a strip of patterned cotton fabric; the edge is finished with a blue trimmed tape.
Men's calf-length boots for the Kraków costume, made of black Russian leather. The main stitch is at the back of the boot. The boots have an isolated vamp, counters and a two-piece upper. The upper is stiffened at the top and lined with leather, at the bottom it is soft and lined with linen.
Shirt buckle – a decoration appearing in a costume of the Podhale region, used to fasten a man's shirt on the chest. It was purchased for the collection of the Tatra Museum by Juliusz Zborowski, a director of this institution, from Ignacy Prokop “Magdziarz” of Ratułów for the price of three million Polish marks in 1924.
White cucha jacket, in local dialect: cucha bioła — a kind of traditional outer clothing worn by men in Podhale. The cucha jacket on display constituted an element of the Sunday best outfit. It was sewn and most likely decorated in 1966 by Czesław Styrczula-Maśniak, a well-known folk tailor from Dzianisz. A year later it was purchased for the collections of the Dr. Tytus Chałubiński Tatra Museum in Zakopane.
A white headscarf tied into a bonnet. A white thin cloth; white, flat and punch embroidery. Two sides cut in teeth surrounded with one border of holes; two other sides cut in teeth with a triple border of holes. Between the teeth, bulky, there are spindle-shaped forms of holes. Between these forms is a six-petal flower with three berries and above them – a belt with motifs of “Turkish hearts.”
A women's blouse for the Kraków costume made of white cotton, decorated with handmade embroidery white, hole and satin stitch. Cut with yoke, without a collar. In the middle of the front, a slit about 27 cm long, fastened under the neck with a button. Long sleeves, gathered at the top, finished with embroidered cuffs.
A pair of women's boots in a Hungarian style for the Kraków costume, made of black tanned leather, stiffened inside with pale cow skin. These boots have two-piece uppers stitched on the sides and stiffened at the top; in the lower part, at the ankles, the skin is characteristically concertinaed (“bellows”).
Women's calf-length boots made from black leather from the Krakow costume are an example of Hungarian style boots. These are the oldest type of boots, which were characterised by stitching two pieces of leather together on the sides. The upper layers of the boots are stiffened at the top, and in the lower part the skin is characteristically concertinaed (“bellows”).
The presented object is a men’s outer garment made of brown cloth, lined with blue and white herringbone factory-made fabric. On the collar and at the end of the sleeves, a black decoratively backstitched material is visible.
The photograph shows four women against the background of a peasant cottage. Two of them, probably models (as recorded by Lucyna Sulerzyska in the inventory sheet), clad in Kraków costumes, are standing by the entrance with their backs facing each other. On the left, two peasant women in regular clothing are sitting on the doorstep (przyzba). The whole figures can be clearly seen, whereas the cottage front can be seen only partially.
Folk costumes in the area of Lemko culture survived far longer than in the neighbouring Carpathian Foothills. This was because of the slower rhythm of cultural changes in the mountainous areas inhabited by the Lemkos.