Red beads were one of the basic elements of traditional folk costumes. However, not all beads adorning our great-grandmothers' necks had noble origins. Genuine coral beads could be so expensive that many girls could only dream of them. With a bit of dexterity and ingenuity, this obstacle was successfully overcome.
Objects derived from noble metals were usually marked with signs, so-called features. Their appearance on goldsmith’s products, their number and significance were related to regulations issued by craftsmen's guilds, then also by city and state authorities. These small marks with numbers and symbols in various shapes, which often remind us of cavities, are an extremely valuable source of information about the artwork. It is possible to specify several types of symbols when recognizing their elements and functions.
In the 19th century, jewellery was worn with folk costumes both by women and men who tied a red ribbon around the shirt collar or fastened the sides of the collar with a collar stud. It was usually made of an alloy of lead, zinc and nickel (bakfon — a material made of imitation silver). The collar stud was adorned with a bead, although few men could afford real coral beads, artificial or even bread beads were used much more often.
Treasure consists of objects found that had been collected and deliberately hidden (deposited), usually in the ground, for some specific reason. Deposits of treasure from the Bronze and early Iron Age are especially numerous; these usually included ornaments, tools, weapons and sometimes bronze vessels.
Malachite is a mineral of the carbonate class, one of the most common minerals and it is widely spread throughout the Earth’s crust. From antiquity, it has been valued as an ornamental stone, amulet and as a medicine. Malachite has been used to produce jewellery, household goods, facing plates used for interior finishing, as well as green dyes and paints.
In keeping with tradition, the groom puts on the ring on the finger of his bride as a symbolic confirmation of the marriage contract (ketubah). The ring must be modest, without precious stones. The bride should not have the impression that the object she receives is of high value...
Silver necklace made of several strands of double stranded wire. The ends of the necklace are forged in the lenticular plate form, decorated on one ornament, completed with hook and eye fastening.
The exhibit comes from a rich collection of patriotic jewellery in the Chrzanów museum. Such jewellery is often called mourning jewellery as it often came from the period of national mourning that followed on Polish territory the defeat of the January Insurrection of 1863.
The motif of decorating Jewish wedding rings with a model of a building appeared as early as the Middle Ages. The top represented either a house to be shared by a young married couple, or – as in the case of the ring presented on our website – a symbolic depiction of the Holy Temple of Jerusalem. The destruction of the Holy Temple is a recurring motif throughout the entire wedding ceremony.
Shirt buckle – a decoration appearing in a costume of the Podhale region, used to fasten a man's shirt on the chest. It was purchased for the collection of the Tatra Museum by Juliusz Zborowski, a director of this institution, from Ignacy Prokop “Magdziarz” of Ratułów for the price of three million Polish marks in 1924.
The glass bead was accidently discovered during the surface research conducted in 1997 in the town of Dziewięcioły (District of Miechów, the Małopolska Province). It was made of yellow opaque glass...
Marcasite is a common mineral, which is finding mainly in sedimentary rocks, like limestones, marls or clayey rocks. It belongs to the class of sulphides. Marcasite at increased temperatures undergoes irreversibly in pyrite, because it is a impermanent form of pyrite. Marcasite and pyrite are polymorphic variants of iron sulfide. It has a brass-yellow color with a greenish tinge and a metallic sheen.
This is probably a piece of funereal jewellery from the time of the partitions. Corals, along with the cross, have probably been made of black lacquer, with velvet tapes for tying around the neck. The object was used as a prop in the School of Fine Arts in Kraków.
Very characteristic relic related to the City Council is ring of the Kraków’s mayors. Golden hoop of the ring, according to the inscription, saying that it comes from year 1532 and the stone from 1590. The sapphire stone has carved Kraków’s crest in it, and it could have been a seal too. This is one of the earliest releases of the city’s crest with an eagle placed in the city defence walls’ gate.
What connects the Tibetan medical kit – one of the oldest items in the collection of the Ethnographic Museum – to the costume of the Scynthian princess – one of the most valuable exhibits of the Archaeological Museum of Kraków?
The ring was purchased for the museum collection in 1998 in one of the antique shops in Sącz. According to the owner of the shop, the ring was found among other objects hidden in one of the houses in Nowy Sącz during the war. The exhibit has a great historical value, as only a few similar objects could be found in Polish museum collections.
The clasp was discovered by Lidia Dobrzańska, primary school student, residing in Dabrowa Tarnowska summer of 1955 years. The girl, a dip in the Dunajec in Żabno noticed a nearby clump river a shiny object. It was a clasp brown and bronze springs — spiral rings fingerclip.
Since 1887 the collection of the Archaeological Museum of Kraków has boasted the equipment of a rich Scythian female tomb situated under the mound of a kurgan, examined in Ryzhanovka near Zvenyhorodka in Ukraine by Gotfryd Ossowski, the first curator of the Museum of National Antiquities (from which today’s Archaeological Museum has originated) at the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences in Kraków.
The find is dated back to the 1st half of the 5th century (before 434). It is one of the most interesting pieces of proof of contact between the peoples inhabiting the area of southern Poland and the Huns in the 1st half of the 5th century. The grave was discovered by accident in 1911 while mining sand. The majority of the excavated objects were smuggled to Kraków over the then Russian-Austrian border.
Women’s Krakow attire was exceptionally diverse, and it would be difficult to carry out, on the basis of any of its parts, as in the case of men’s attire, a clear division into western and eastern Cracovians. The main elements that distinguished the women’s attire, were, first of all...