Józef Chełmoński’s Team of Four is the best known and most frequently referred to example of peak achievements of naturalism in Polish paintings. This large-format canvas depicts a team of four horses tearing towards the viewers while driven with passion by a Ukrainian peasant. The animals, painted in their natural size, seem to be bursting the surface of the painting, causing the illusion of unstoppable, constant movement.
Wernyhora – a Ukrainian lyricist and bard, according to some a legendary person, according to others a historical person living in the second half of the 18th century – became famous for political prophecies regarding the fate of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Ukraine. He was supposed to have foreseen the bloody Cossack rebellions, the partitioning of Poland, the unsuccessful national liberation uprisings and the revival of the Polish statehood.